In this module, you will simulate a Synthesis Gas Production facility. This will introduce you to the powerful reaction modelling capability of HYSYS. The production of synthesis gas is an important step in the production of ammonia. Synthesis gas is comprised of hydrogen and nitrogen at a molar ratio of 3:1. The main role of the synthesis gas plant is to convert natural gas, primarily methane, into hydrogen.
Natural gas is a vital component of the world's supply of energy and an important
source of many bulk chemicals and speciality chemicals. It is one of the cleanest, safest,
and most useful of all energy sources, and helps to meet the world’s rising demand for
cleaner energy into the future. However, exploring, producing and bringing gas to the
user or converting gas into desired chemicals is a systematical engineering project, and
every step requires thorough understanding of gas and the surrounding environment.
Diesel engines, also known as CI engines, possess a wide field of applications as energy converters because of their higher efficiency. However, diesel engines are a major source of NOX and particulate matter (PM) emissions. Because of its importance, five chapters in this book have been devoted to the formulation and control of these pollutants. The world is currently experiencing an oil crisis. Gaseous fuels like natural gas, pure hydrogen gas, biomass-based and coke-based syngas can be considered as alternative fuels for diesel engines.
Worldwide, China is the chief consumer of coal,
burning more than the United States, the European
Union, and Japan combined. With worldwide de-
mand for electricity, and oil and natural gas inse-
curities growing, the price of coal on global mar-
kets doubled fromMarch 2007 toMarch 2008: from
$41 to $85 per ton.
In 2010, it remained in the
Coal burning produces one and a half times the
CO2 emissions of oil combustion and twice that
from burning natural gas (for an equal amount
of energy produced).
Average rental rates quoted in the Apartment Association report may be somewhat inflated due to the periodic
addition of new communities upon their completion, most of which have rental rates above the metro
average. Uncounted in these averages is the effect of special deals, reduced or eliminated security deposits
and other concessions meant to retain or attract residents, a situation slowly declining in value and experience
as vacancy rates declined.
Rental rates are usually quoted with water and sewer costs included but with the tenant paying for electricity
and natural gas.
Hydrogen and synthesis gas (syngas) are indispensable in chemical, oil, and energy industries. They are important building blocks and serve as feedstocks for the production of chemicals such as ammonia and methanol. Hydrogen is used in petroleum refi neries to produce clean transportation fuels, and its consumption is expected to increase dramatically in the near future as refi ners need to process increasingly heavier and sour crudes.