[Mechanical Translation, vol.3, no.3, December 1956; pp. 81-88]
M. A. K. Halliday, Cambridge Language Research Unit, Cambridge, England
The grammar and lexis of a language exhibit a high degree of internal determination, affecting all utterances whether or not these are translated from another language.
Humanity is facing several critical global challenges at the beginning of the 21st century.
One of which includes the quest for alternative energy resources that mitigate
the dependence on fossil fuels. Whereas fossil fuels are available in situ at all times,
the utilisation of renewal energies has to cope with large temporal fl uctuations ranging
from seconds to seasons.
and procedurally rational behavior. Among the limits to rationality are the fact that we can formulate, analyze, and interpret only a restricted amount of information; can devote only a limited amount of time to decision-making; and can become involved in many more activities than we can effectively consider and cope with simultaneously. We must therefore necessarily focus attention only on a portion of the major competing concerns.
Support groups led by
our social workers are a good place to exchange information
and share experiences with other people in similar situations,
which can make it easier to cope. Our social workers also help
you find the practical help you might need, such as financial
assistance or tips on managing side effects. All of CancerCare’s
services, offered by telephone, online, and face to face, are
completely free of charge.
By talking with your children honestly and helping them
express their emotions, you make it easier for them to feel
safe and secure.
There are well-founded concerns that current air transportation systems will not be
able to cope with their expected growth. Current processes, procedures and
technologies in aeronautical communications do not provide the flexibility needed to
meet the growing demands. Aeronautical communications is seen as one major
bottleneck stressing capacity limits in air transportation. Ongoing research projects are
developing the fundamental methods, concepts and technologies for future
aeronautical communications that are required to enable higher capacities in air
Second, lower output and lower income, together with a poorly functioning financial system,
imply that consumption may have depended more on current than on future income, and that
investment may have depended more on current than on future profits, with both effects
leading to larger multipliers (Eggertsson and Krugman, 2012).
Third, and consistent with some of the above mechanisms, a number of empirical studies
have found that fiscal multipliers are likely to be larger when there is a great deal of slack in
the economy. Based on U.S.
This chapter addresses the physiological and emotional components of health and well-
being. It aims to help people become more aware of their internalized frameworks and how
they can be utilized so as to attain and enjoy a healthy outlook on life. In turn this can
influence health-related behaviour and reduce consequently the likelihood of experiencing
illnesses induced by aspects of modern living.
Increasingly, the ME industry is required to cope with more severe market fluctuations
than most other branches of industry. As on of the prime supplying industries of capital
goods, it is highly dependent on the investment activity of the purchasing companies,
which are highly sensitive to developments in the economy as a whole. This applies
above all to industry’s investments in equipment and machinery, into which most ME
products flow either directly or indirectly.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to answer the following questions: What is stress, and how is it different than stressors and strains? What are the four main types of stressors? How do individuals cope with stress? How does the Type A Behavior Pattern influence the stress process? How does stress affect job performance and organizational commitment? What steps can organizations take to manage employee stress?
Malnutrition results from a complex set of factors and not one simple cause. The UNICEF conceptual
model of causes of malnutrition (page 16) provides a useful framework for the discussion of the
causes of malnutrition in Somalia. The volatile political situation and civil unrest have led to a
chronic and continuing humanitarian crisis that is at the root of the high prevalence of malnutrition
in Somalia. Somalia is also prone to drought and floods.
The world suffers no shortage of accounting texts. The
many I’ve read over the past 25 years have helped me audit,
prepare, use, and explain corporate financial statements.
Missing in this lettered journey has been a work that
provides context for accounting’s six divisive issues: inflation,
volatility, intangibles, debt, options, and earnings. A brief history
of accounting can fill this void.
Students and practitioners study textbooks designed to explain
the how’s of accounting.
It is not assumed that, when subjected to such "forces" of positive feedback, people do
not try to find mechanisms with which to cope. The models assume that people do the best they
can in the circumstances they face. What the models do is to identify conditions in which this
is not enough to lift communities out of the mire. Turner and Ali (1996), for example, have
shown that in the face of population pressure inBangladesh small land-holders have periodically
adopted new ways of doing things so as to intensify agricultural production.
The paper discusses three different kinds of syntactic ill-formedness: ellipsis, conjunctions, and actual syntactic errors. It is shown how a new grammatical formalism, based on a two-level repr_e sentation of the syntactic knowledge is used to cope with Ill-formed sentences. The basic control struc ture of the parser is briefly sketched; the paper shows that it can be applied without any substan tial change both to correct and to ill-formed sen tences.