Most people take the process of coping for granted as they go about their daily activities. In many ways, coping is like breathing, an automatic process requiring no apparent effort. However, when people face truly threatening events--what psychologists call stressors--they become acutely aware of the coping process and respond by consciously applying their day-to-day coping skills. Coping is a fundamental psychological process, and people's skills are commensurately sophisticated. This volume builds on people's strengths and emphasizes their role as positive copers.
Underspeciﬁcation-based algorithms for processing partially disambiguated discourse structure must cope with extremely high numbers of readings. Based on previous work on dominance graphs and weighted tree grammars, we provide the ﬁrst possibility for computing an underspeciﬁed discourse description and a best discourse representation efﬁciently enough to process even the longest discourses in the RST Discourse Treebank.
Practical natural language interfaces must exhibit robust bei~aviour in the presence of extragrammaticat user input. This paper classifies different types of grammatical deviations and related phenomena at the lexical and sentential levels, discussing recovery strategies tailored to specific phenomena in the classification. Such strategies constitute a tool chest of computationally tractable methods for coping with extragrammaticality in restricted domain natural language. Some of the strategies have been tested and proven viable in existing parsers. ...
Signal processing plays a key role in the optimization of disc capacity together with system margins of the optical drive. For the new format, new modulation codes have been designed for the rewritable version (parity-preserving code) and the read-only version (combi-code). For bit-detection in the rewritable format, a nonrecursive algorithm with PRML-like performance is devised. Finally, a new ECC code, called the picket code, was designed in order to cope with multiple long burst errors, on top of the usual random errors of the channel...
Women were among the first documented cases of AIDS (Corea, 1992; Shilts,
1987), and have continued to become infected, develop AIDS, and die, throughout
the course of this pandemic. Women have consistently constituted more than half
of those infected with HIV globally, while in the United States their representation
among those struck by AIDS has been increasing dramatically in recent years;
more new infections occur among women than men at the present time.
The creation of quick jobs, as opposed to training, often results in the
creation of too many bricklayers, often of not very good caliber. So
that when the fund goes, people are no more able to get a good job
Sometimes there is a contradiction between building quality projects
and using local labor, because when asked, municipalities often want
quality projects. And yet bilateral and multilateral agencies say they want
local labor to be employed.
Finally, there are some environmental issues.
Study Skills cover all those abilities that make it possible to cope with the demands
of academic and professional pursuits. For people just embarking on a course of
study they include being able to deal with all the intellectual, emotional and
social challenges that are part of the day-to-day demands of being a student.
Beyond the skills involved in coping are those that enable students to do well in
their chosen disciplines.
We do not always need science to teach us what happens on landscapes,
though science enriches that story. All who have had to cope in the world
knew this, natives of landscapes wherever. Science brings insight into continu-
ing organic, ecological, and evolutionary unity, dynamic genesis; but such
unity may also have already been realized by pre-scientific peoples in their
inhabiting of a landscape. Science can engage us with landscapes too object-
ively, academically, disinterestedly; landscapes are also known in participant
encounter, by being embodied in them. ...
With the availability of large treebanks, retrieval techniques for highly structured data now become essential. In this contribution, we investigate the efficient retrieval of MT structures at the cost of a complex index--the Treegram Index. We illustrate our approach with the VENONA retrieval system, which handles the BH t (Biblia Hebraica transeripta) treebank comprising 508,650 phrase structure trees with maximum degree eight and maximum height 17, containing altogether 3.3 million Old-Hebrew words.
It includses a n u m b e r of specialized tools t h a t consent an easy, graphics-based interaction with the parser. It is shown in particular how a combination of the characteristics of the parser (based on the lexicon a n d on dynamic unification) and of the e n v i r o n m e n t allow a nonspecialized user to explore heuristics t h a t m a y alter the basica control of the system. In this way, for instance, a p s y c h o l i n g...
In some cities, urban agriculture is an important coping strategy for households. Because women often have the responsibility for food procurement for the household, they are frequently involved in urban agricultural production and sales. Urban agriculture presents a number of challenges, including competition for scarce land, degradation of soils, and pollution .
This chapter describes a company's competitiveness and its relative position to other firms in both local and global markets. The competitive dimensions of operations are cost, product quality and reliability, delivery speed, delivery reliability, coping with demand change, flexibility, and new product introduction speed. Central to the concept of operations strategy is the notion of operations focus and trade-offs.
Health care providers* tend to talk to patients about their disease
rather than train them in the daily management* of their condition.
Therapeutic patient education* is designed therefore to train patients
in the skills* of self-managing or adapting treatment to their particular
chronic disease*, and in coping* processes and skills*. It should also
contribute to reducing the cost* of long-term care to patients and to
When people use natural language in natural settings, they often use it ungrammatically, rnisSing out or repeating words, breaking-oil and restarting, speaking in Iragments, etc.. Their human listeners are usually able to cope with these deviations with little difficulty. If a computer system wislles tc accept natural language input from its users on a routine basis, it must display a similar indifference. In this paper, we outline a set of parsing flexibiiilies that :',uch a system should provide. We go, on to describe FlexP.
If natural language understanding systems are ever to cope with the full range of English language forms, their designers will have to incorporate a number of features of the spoken vernacular language. This communication discusses such features as non-standard grammatical rules, hesitations and false starts due to self-correction, systematic errors due to mismatches between the grammar and sentence generator, and uncorrected true errors.
The recent literature shows that the belief "natural languages are not context-free" is not necessarily true, and there is no reason for us to give up the context-freedom of natural languages. We (to not discuss on this matter further, considering the fact that even if natural languages are not context-free, a fairly comprehensive grammar for a subset of natural language suflicient for practical systems can be written in context.free phrase structure. lhtJ.% our main concern is how to cope with the ambiguity of natural languages, and this concern is addressed in the fallowing section. ...
intermediate depencies between morphology, syntax and semantics. A strong, multidimensional formalism that can cope with d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of language seems necessary. In t h i s chapter a graph grammar formalism based on the notions of r e l a t i o n a l graph grammars ( R a j l i c h 1975) and a t t r i b u t e d programmed graph grammars (Bunke 1982) is developed f o r parsing languages with configurational structure .
The paper discusses three different kinds of syntactic ill-formedness: ellipsis, conjunctions, and actual syntactic errors. It is shown how a new grammatical formalism, based on a two-level repr_e sentation of the syntactic knowledge is used to cope with Ill-formed sentences. The basic control struc ture of the parser is briefly sketched; the paper shows that it can be applied without any substan tial change both to correct and to ill-formed sen tences.
Substantial efforts have been made in order to cope with disjunctions in constraint based grammar formalisms (e.g. [Kasper, 1987; Maxwell and Kaplan, 1991; DSrre and Eisele, 1990].). This paper describes the roles of disjunctions and inheritance in the use of feature structures and their formal semantics. With the notion of contexts we abstract from the graph structure of feature structures and properly define the search space of alternatives.
In this paper a morphological component with a limited capability to automatically interpret (and generate) derived words is presented. The system combines an extended two-level morphology [Trost, 1991a; Trost, 1991b] with a feature-based word grammar building on a hierarchical lexicon. Polymorphemic stems not explicitly stored in the lexicon are given a compositional interpretation.