The mortality from ischemic heart disease has decreased in recent years. The better under‐
standing of risk factors associated with development of coronary artery disease (CAD) has
significantly contributed to this decline. Preventive measures such as aggressive therapy of
arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and lipid disorders and by campaigning against the
smoking are important components of this medical success.
Edited by: Branislav BaskotISBN 978-953-307-675-1, Hard cover, 414 pagesPublisher: InTechPublication date: September 2011Subject: Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine In the intervening 10 years tremendous advances in the field of cardiac computed tomography have occurred. We now can legitimately claim that computed tomography angiography (CTA) of the coronary arteries is available. In the eval......
Several studies have compared outcomes for coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG)
and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), but most were done before the availability
of stenting, which has revolutionized the latter approach.
We used New York’s cardiac registries to identify 37,212 patients with multivessel disease
who underwent CABG and 22,102 patients with multivessel disease who underwent
PCI from January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2000.
In clinical practice left ventricular (LV) function is commonly
evaluated by 2-D and M-mode echocardiography.
These modalities have significant limitations,and tissue
Doppler imaging (TDI) has been introduced as a quantitative
and more objective method for assessing myocardial
function. The TDI modalities include myocardial
velocity imaging,displacement imaging,strain rate imaging,
and strain imaging (Fig. 1).
Previous trials have demonstrated that lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
levels below currently recommended levels is beneficial in patients with acute coronary
syndromes. We prospectively assessed the efficacy and safety of lowering LDL
cholesterol levels below 100 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter) in patients with stable
coronary heart disease (CHD).
Low-carbohydrate diets have been advocated for weight loss and to prevent obesity,
but the long-term safety of these diets has not been determined.
We evaluated data on 82,802 women in the Nurses’ Health Study who had completed
a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Data from the questionnaire were
used to calculate a low-carbohydrate-diet score, which was based on the percentage
of energy as carbohydrate, fat, and protein (a higher score reflects a higher intake
of fat and protein and a lower intake of carbohydrate).
In patients with stable coronary artery disease, it remains unclear whether an initial
management strategy of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with intensive
pharmacologic therapy and lifestyle intervention (optimal medical therapy) is superior
to optimal medical therapy alone in reducing the risk of cardiovascular events.
We conducted a randomized trial involving 2287 patients who had objective evidence
of myocardial ischemia and significant coronary artery disease at 50 U.S. and Canadian
Numerous studies have compared the outcomes of two competing interventions for
multivessel coronary artery disease: coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) and
coronary stenting. However, little information has become available since the introduction
of drug-eluting stents.
Microvascular perfusion is often impaired after primary percutaneous coronary intervention
(PCI). We proposed that in situ thrombosis might contribute to poor myocardial
perfusion in this setting. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effect of lowdose
intracoronary streptokinase administered immediately after primary PCI.
Forty-one patients undergoing primary PCI were randomly assigned to receive intracoronary
streptokinase (250 kU) or no additional therapy.
Recent trials have demonstrated better outcomes with intensive than with moderate
statin treatment. Intensive treatment produced greater reductions in both low-density
lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and C-reactive protein (CRP), suggesting a relationship
between these two biomarkers and disease progression.
We performed intravascular ultrasonography in 502 patients with angiographically documented
coronary disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive moderate treatment
(40 mg of pravastatin orally per day) or intensive treatment (80 mg of atorvastatin
orally per day)....
Calcified plaque in the coronary arteries is a marker for atheromatous-plaque burden
and is predictive of future risk of cardiovascular events. We examined the relationship
between estrogen therapy and coronary-artery calcium in the context of a randomized
In our ancillary substudy of the Women’s Health Initiative trial of conjugated equine
estrogens (0.625 mg per day) as compared with placebo in women who had undergone
hysterectomy, we performed computed tomography of the heart in 1064 women
aged 50 to 59 years at randomization.
Few studies have simultaneously investigated the role of soluble tumor necrosis factor
) receptors types 1 and 2 (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2), C-reactive protein, and
interleukin-6 as predictors of cardiovascular events. The value of these inflammatory
markers as independent predictors remains controversial.
In the past decade, the radial artery has frequently been used for coronary bypass surgery
despite concern regarding the possibility of graft spasm. Graft patency is a key
predictor of long-term survival. We therefore sought to determine the relative patency
rate of radial-artery and saphenous-vein grafts in a randomized trial in which we controlled
for bias in the selection of patients and vessels.
We enrolled 561 patients at 13 centers. The left internal thoracic artery was used to bypass
the anterior circulation....
At the end of the lecture, participants will know: the epidemiology of coronary artery disease, the risk factors associated with coronary artery disease, how to use online tools to estimate a patient's risk for myocardial infarction, how to screen for and couns a patient to reduce their risk for coronary artery disease.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Coronary artery disease - Assessment, surgery, prevention" presents the following contents: Regadenoson — Overview of applications in cardiology, noninvasive imaging for the assessment of coronary artery disease, optical coherence tomography for the assessment of coronary plaque vulnerability
(BQ) Part 2 book "Coronary artery disease - Assessment, surgery, prevention" presents the following contents: Coronary artery bypass surgery, surgical treatment in diffuse coronary artery disease, role and rationale for hybrid coronary artery revascularization, mechanical complications of myocardial infarction, prevention of coronary artery disease through diet,...