Essential elements of the legal system, the law of obligations, employmet law, the formation and consitution of business organisations,... As the main contents of the document paper F4: "Corporate and business law - Study text 2016". Invite you to consult.
Chapter 7 - Accounting statutory obligations. Learning objectives: To learn the compliance requirements of the Corporations Act 2001, to learn the compliance requirements of applicable accounting standards within australia, to understand audit requirements and other statutory obligations.
Tools that help us determine the financial health of a company.
We can compare a company’s financial ratios with its ratios in previous years (trend analysis).
We can compare a company’s financial ratios with those of its industry. Do we have enough liquid assets to meet approaching obligations ?If the average current ratio for the
industry is 2.4, is this good or not?
The money market is traditionally defined as the market for financial
assets that have original maturities of one year or less. In essence, it is
the market for short-term debt instruments. Financial assets traded in
this market include such instruments as U.S. Treasury bills, commercial
paper, some medium-term notes, bankers acceptances, federal agency
discount paper, most certificates of deposit, repurchase agreements,
floating-rate agreements, and federal funds.
In certain countries the Company also provides postretirement benefits other than
pensions to various employees. The cost relating to such plans consists of the present value
of the benefits attributed on equal basis to each year of service, and interest cost on the
accumulated postretirement benefit obligation, which is a discounted amount. The
transition obligation is being recognized through charges to earnings over a twenty-year
period beginning in 1993 in the US and in 1995 for all other plans.
venture to call this Essay 'Lombard Street,' and not the 'Money Market,' or any such phrase, because I wish
to deal, and to show that I mean to deal, with concrete realities. A notion prevails that the Money Market is
something so impalpable that it can only be spoken of in very abstract words, and that therefore books on it
must always be exceedingly difficult. But I maintain that the Money Market is as concrete and real as
anything else; that it can be described in as plain words; that it is the writer's fault if what he says is not clear.
In one respect,...
This book grew out of the experiences of the late 1980s and early
1990s. The economic downturn and high interest rates scattered
financial distress around the world. Many private individuals and
corporations faced the grim reality of insolvency. The plague did not
distinguish between race, religion or nationality.
However, the social response to the malaise did. In many
countries the illness was diagnosed as terminal.
We produce about two million dollars for each hour we work. The time it takes us, a rather conservative
estimate, is fifty hours to get any etext selected, entered, proofread, edited, copyright searched and analyzed,
the copyright letters written, etc. Our projected audience is one hundred million readers.
The cost component of the pension benefit corresponding to each year
of service is the actuarial present value of the benefit earned in that year. In principle the
same amount of pension benefit is attributed to each year of service. If and to the extent
that as of the beginning of the year, the present value of the projected benefit obligation
differs from the market value of the plan assets or the existing pension provision, the
difference is amortized over the average remaining service period of active employees.
The present reality of the situation is that the ability of other, larger sovereigns to roll over
maturing debt on their own is increasingly in doubt, and in any event, will involve very high,
economically penalizing, interest rates.
Under these circumstances, one or more sovereigns may be unable to issue new debt to redeem
old debt at par value in the future.
Fama (1977) and Miller (1977) predict that one
minus the corporate tax rate will equate aftertax
yields from comparable taxable and taxexempt
bonds. Empirical evidence shows that
long-term tax-exempt yields are higher than
theory predicts. Two popular explanations for
this empirical puzzle are that, relative to taxable
bonds, municipal bonds bear more default risk
and include costly call options. I study U.S. government
secured municipal bond yields which
are effectively default-free and noncallable.
These municipal yields display the same tendency
to be too high.
Prepare journal entries to record each of the following independent stock issue situations.
a) Max Graphics Corporation issued 500,000 shares of $0.50 par value common stock. The issue price was $18 per share.
b) Aztec Corporation issued 35,000 shares of no par common stock for $25 per share.
c) Pyramid Play issued 60,000 shares of $50 par value preferred stock. The issue price was $76 per share.
d) Paradise Land Management issued 15,000 shares of $1 par value common stock for land with a fair value of $250,000....
The FSVM is missing a variable reflecting that the forward earnings yield is riskier than
the government bond yield. How should we measure risk in the model? An obvious
choice is to use the spread between corporate bond yields and Treasury bond yields. This
spread measures the market’s assessment of the risk that some corporations might be
forced to default on their bonds. Of course, such events are very unusual, especially for
companies included in the S&P 500.
CHAPTER 11 Corporate Bonds
A corporation issues bonds intending to meet all required payments of interest and repayment of principal. Investors buy bonds believing that the corporation intends to fulfill its debt obligation in a timely manner. Although defaults can and do occur
Given recent seismic upheavals in the world’s money markets, an updated edition of an
authoritative, reliable textbook on the international law of foreign investment has rarely
been so timely. Sornarajah’s classic text surveys how international law has developed to
protect foreign investments by multinational actors and to control any misconduct on
their part. It analyses treaty-based methods, examining the effectiveness of bilateral and
regional investment treaties.
Agency securities. Agency securities are the obligations of federal gov-
ernment agencies or government-sponsored enterprises. Generally, agency
debt offers a slight yield premium over T-bills. Turn back to Chapter 6 for
more on agency securities.
Commercial paper. Commercial paper, or CP, is issued by corporations
(including banks) to ﬁnance short-term cash needs. While smaller corpo-
rations usually depend on bank loans for this type of funding, larger cor-
porations with good credit ratings can access the CP market and often do
Upon receipt of an exercise notice, OCC will then assign this exercise notice to one or
more Clearing Members with short positions in the same series in accordance with its
established procedures. The Clearing Member will, in turn, assign one or more of its
customers (either randomly or on a first in first out basis) who hold short positions in
that series. The assigned Clearing Member will then be obligated to sell (in the case of
a call) or buy (in the case of a put) the underlying shares of stock at the specified strike
The definition of investor and investment is key to the scope of application of rights and obligations of investment agreements and to the establishment of the jurisdiction of investment treaty-based arbitral tribunals. This factual survey of state practice and jurisprudence aims to clarify the requirements to be met by individuals and corporations in order to
A corporation can be viewed as a nexus of contracts designed
to minimize contracting costs (Coase 1937). Parties
contracting with the firm desire information both about the
firm’s ability to satisfy the terms of contracts and the firm’s
ultimate compliance with its contractual obligations. Financial
accounting information supplies a key quantitative
representation of individual corporations that supports a wide
range of contractual relationships.
Many businesses are operated through a separate entity such as a corporation or a partnership (either formed with or without limited liability). Most legal jurisdictions allow people to organize such an entity by filing certain charter documents with the relevant Secretary of State or equivalent and complying with certain other ongoing obligations. The relationships and legal rights of shareholders, limited partners, or members are governed partly by the charter documents and partly by the law of the jurisdiction where the entity is organized.