Chinese Pinyin input method is very important for Chinese language information processing. Users may make errors when they are typing in Chinese words. In this paper, we are concerned with the reasons that cause the errors. Inspired by the observation that pressing backspace is one of the most common user behaviors to modify the errors, we collect 54, 309, 334 error-correction pairs from a realworld data set that contains 2, 277, 786 users via backspace operations. In addition, we present a comparative analysis of the data to achieve a better understanding of users’ input behaviors. ...
The goals of The diagnostic adaptive behavior scale: Evaluating its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity is comparing the DABS standard score of assessed individuals with and without and ID diagnosis and determining sensitivity and speciﬁcity of the DABS to correctly identify persons with an ID diagnosis from individuals who do not have an ID diagnosis; and evaluating the sensitivity and speciﬁcity across age groups 4–21 years old.
W e describe a program for assigning correct stress contours to nominals in English. It makes use of idiosyncratic knowledge about the stress behavior of various nominal types and general knowledge about English stress rules. W e have also investigated the related issue of parsing complex nominals in English. The importance of this work and related research to the problem of text-to-speech is 'discussed.
Sometimes luck beats planning. I have been fortunate in my professional career,
a career that began in 1973 as an accountant and continued into operations management
and management consulting. Without realizing it—through a series of
different jobs and management consulting assignments—I somehow earned a
reputation as an internationally recognized expert in activity-based cost management
Why have TV sitcoms used canned laugh tracks for years? Producers wouldn’t employ them unless they actually
are successful in eliciting audience laughter and, subsequently, higher ratings. Part of the reason you laugh
along anyway in spite of your annoyance lies in how you decide what is socially “correct” behavior. If you
don’t know exactly what to do, you rely on others around you (or the virtual TV audience) to help you find the
way to properly react. You think if others are engaging in a specific behavior, it must be the proper thing to do.
During the conflict and civil war in the 1980s and 1990s, particularly between 1992 and
1995, armed factions turned the traditional norms of honor and shame into weapons of
war, engaging in rape and sexual assault against women of opposing groups as an ultimate
means of dishonoring entire communities and reducing people's capacities to resist military
advances.2 In response, concerns about women's security led to the imposition of ever
stricter interpretations of what constitutes socially acceptable behavior, supported by the
most conservative reading of the holy scriptures.
AT is recognized as the largest energy store of free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG),
and more recently as an endocrine organ that regulates the secretion of adipokines, which
coordinate energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity and feeding behavior, not only in adults
but also in pediatric populations. Imbalance between visceral and subcutaneous AT is
capable of altering its physiology.
The ‘Aussiedler’ are ethnic German migrants and represent a unique group of diaspora
migrants. Since 1993, the officially correct term for Aussiedler is Spätaussiedler, however for
ease of presentation we will use the term Aussiedler throughout the text.
The first Aussiedler came to Russia when Peter I (1689–1725) changed his politics towards
Europe. They were the beginning of the urban German population in Russia.
But this only touches the surface. Computers are a physical implementation
of the rules of (mathematical) computation as described by Alan Turing
and others from the mid 1930’s through the early 1940’s. Working with a
computer at any level but the most superﬁcial requires that you understand
algorithms, how they work, how to show they are correct, and that you
are able to construct new algorithms. The only way to get to this point
is to study basic algorithms, understand why they work, and even why
these algorithms are better (or worse) than others.
Prior research features a variety of approaches to stock trading, including those pre-
sented here. Automated market making has been studied in [3–5]. Reinforcement learn-
ing has been previously used to adjust the parameters of a market-making strategy in
response to market behavior . Other approaches to automated stock trading include
the reverse strategy and VWAP trading [5, 6]. A brief overview of these common ap-
proaches can be found in .
Some people think children’s spending time on TV, video and PC games is good, while others think it is bad. Discuss both views and give your own opinion.
Some people think that criminals should be given longer terms in prison, so as to reduce the crime rate. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
Old generations often hold some traditional ideas on the correct way of life, thinking and behavior. However, some people think that it is not helpful for the young generations to prepare for modern life in the future. What’s your opinion?...
Which of the following are required when adding a network to the OSPF routing process configuration? (Choose three.) In a lab test environment, a router has learned about network 172.16.1.0 through four different dynamic routing processes. Which route will be used to reach this network? A network administrator is analyzing routing update behavior on a network that has both EIGRP and OSPF configured on all routers. Both protocols appear in the output of show ip protocols. However, only EIGRP internal routes appear in the routing tables. Which statement correctly explains the scenario?...
Database systems are a key component behind many
of today’s computer systems. As a consequence, it is
crucial that database systems provide correct and contin-
uous service despite unpredictable circumstances, such
as software bugs or attacks. This paper presents the de-
sign of Byzantium, a Byzantine fault-tolerant database
replication middleware that provides snapshot isolation
(SI) semantics. SI is very popular because it allows in-
creased concurrency when compared to serializability,
while providing similar behavior for typical workloads.
The large size, heterogeneity, and
distributed nature of networks give
administrators a large number of degrees of
freedom to consider when configuration changes
need to be made. The proper functioning of the
network as a whole is a result of the coordinated
configuration of multiple network elements
whose interaction gives rise to the desired
behaviors. The number of options to consider
and the complexity of the interactions and
interdependencies between various protocols and
applications make it a very hard task to reason
about configuration changes.
This paper describes the conversion of a Hidden Markov Model into a sequential transducer that closely approximates the behavior of the stochastic model. This transformation is especially advantageous for part-of-speech tagging because the resulting transducer can be composed with other transducers that encode correction rules for the most frequent tagging errors. The speed of tagging is also improved. The described methods have been implemented and successfully tested on six languages.
This paper explores the use of clickthrough data for query spelling correction. First, large amounts of query-correction pairs are derived by analyzing users' query reformulation behavior encoded in the clickthrough data. Then, a phrase-based error model that accounts for the transformation probability between multi-term phrases is trained and integrated into a query speller system.
At the end of the session, participants should be able to: becoming aware of your patterns of interactional behavior, becoming aware of the effect of your behavior on others, receiving information to correct inaccurate perceptions and assumptions.