Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) have been applied with considerable success to a number of natural language processing tasks. However, these tasks have mostly involved very small label sets. When deployed on tasks with larger label sets, the requirements for computational resources mean that training becomes intractable. This paper describes a method for training CRFs on such tasks, using error correcting output codes (ECOC). A number of CRFs are independently trained on the separate binary labelling tasks of distinguishing between a subset of the labels and its complement. ...
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Full-Diversity Space-Time Error Correcting Codes with Low-Complexity Receivers
Mohamad Sayed Hassan and Karine Amis
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes are forward error-correction codes,
first proposed in the 1962 PhD thesis of Gallager at MIT. At the time, their
incredible potential remained undiscovered due to the computational demands
of simulation in an era when vacumm tubes were only just being replaced by
the first transistors. They remained largely neglected for over 35 years. In the
mean time the field of forward error correction was dominated by highly structured
algebraic block and convolutional codes.
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Research Article Opportunistic Multicasting Scheduling Using Erasure-Correction Coding over Wireless Channels
Quang Le-Dang and Tho Le-Ngoc
In this chapter students will be able to: Explain the purpose and format of the ICD-9-CM volumes that are used by medical offices, describe how to analyze diagnoses and locate correct codes using the ICD-9-CM, identify the purpose and format of the CPT, name three key factors that determine the level of Evaluation and Management codes that are selected,...
The Developer exam is challenging. There are a lot of complex design issues to consider, and a host of advanced Java technologies to understand and implement correctly. The exam assessors work under very strict guidelines. You can create the most brilliant application ever to grace a JVM, but if you don’t cross your t’s and dot your i’s the assessors have no choice but to deduct crucial (and sometimes substantial) points from your project.
Let us first discuss some issues related, directly ,indirectly, to error detection and correction.
Types of ErrorsRedundancyDetection Versus CorrectionForward Error Correction Versus RetransmissionCoding
This lecture covers the fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation, which can be defined
as any modulation technique that requires a transmission bandwidth much greater than the
modulating signal bandwidth, independently of the bandwidth of the modulating signal. After
reviewing basic digital modulation techniques, the principal forms of spread spectrum modulation
are described. One of the most important components of a spread spectrum system is the
spreading code, and several types and their characteristics are described.
In the late 1940’s Claude Shannon was developing information theory and coding as a mathematical model for communication. At the same time, Richard Hamming, a colleague of Shannon’s at Bell Laboratories, found a need for error correction in his work on computers. Parity checking was already being used to detect errors in the calculations of the relay-based computers of the day, and Hamming realized that a more sophisticated pattern of parity checking allowed the correction of single errors along with the detection of double errors.
"Clear, correct, and deep, this is a welcome addition to discussions of law and computing for anyone -- even lawyers!" -- Lawrence Lessig, Professor of Law at Stanford Law School and founder of the Stanford Center for Internet and Society
If you work in information technology, intellectual property is central to your job
Through the aid of a compiler, a program written in a computer language, such as C++, is turned
into machine code, which is executed on the computer. However, going from an idea to a program that
works successfully takes a lot of time and effort. It may take several rewrites of code to get the program
to work correctly. To accomplish this, students must learn a disciplined approach to organizing the code
and learn how to trace their programs.
In this work, we investigate the use of error-correcting output codes (ECOC) for boosting centroid text classifier. The implementation framework is to decompose one multi-class problem into multiple binary problems and then learn the individual binary classification problems by centroid classifier. However, this kind of decomposition incurs considerable bias for centroid classifier, which results in noticeable degradation of performance for centroid classifier. In order to address this issue, we use Model-Refinement to adjust this so-called bias. ...
Chapter 16 - Medical coding. After completing chapter 16, you will be able to: Explain the purpose and format of the ICD volumes that are used by medical, describe how to analyze diagnoses and locate correct codes using the ICD, identify the purpose and format of the CPT, name three key factors that determine the level of Evaluation and Management codes that are selected,...
Chapter 16 - Medical coding. In this chapter you will learn: Explain the purpose and format of the ICD-9-CM volumes that are used by medical offices, describe how to analyze diagnoses and locate correct codes using the ICD-9-CM, identify the purpose and format of the CPT, name three key factors that determine the level of Evaluation and Management codes that are selected,...
Trong viễn thông (telecommunication), mã Hamming là một mã sửa lỗi tuyến tính (linear error-correcting code),
được đặt tên theo tên của người phát minh ra nó, Richard Hamming. Mã Hamming có thể phát hiện một bit hoặc hai
bit bị lỗi (single and double-bit errors). Mã Hamming còn có thể sửa các lỗi do một bit bị sai gây ra.
The data type of a variable is important because it determines the operations that are allowed and the
range of values that can be stored. C++ defines several types of data, and each type has unique
characteristics. Because data types differ, all variables must be declared prior to their use, and a variable
declaration always includes a type specifier. The compiler requires this information in order to generate
correct code. In C++ there is no concept of a “type-less” variable.
Giáo trình này sẽ cung cấp cho người đọc những khối kiến thức cơ bản của lý thuyết thông tin
như: Độ do lượng tin (Measure of Information), Sinh mã tách được (Decypherable Coding),
Kênh truyền tin rời rạc không nhớ (Discrete Memoryless Channel) và Sửa lỗi trên kênh truyền
(Error Correcting Codings).
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Giáo trình này sẽ cung cấp cho người đọc những khối kiến thức cơ bản của lý thuyết thông tin như: độ đo lượng tin (Measure of Information), sinh mã tách được (Decypherable Coding), kênh truyền tin rời rạc không nhớ (Discrete Memoryless Channel) và sửa lỗi trên kênh truyền (Error Correcting Codings)... Mời bạn đọc cùng tham khảo.