Correlational methods

Xem 1-20 trên 73 kết quả Correlational methods
  • Certain postulates are posited as a basis for the orientation and organization of research in mechanical translation. They are the following: 1. The essential problem of mechanical translation is the establishment of acceptable correlation between the signs of one system (the source language) and those of another (the target language).

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  • Human evaluations of machine translation are extensive but expensive. Human evaluations can take months to finish and involve human labor that can not be reused. We propose a method of automatic machine translation evaluation that is quick, inexpensive, and language-independent, that correlates highly with human evaluation, and that has little marginal cost per run. We present this method as an automated understudy to skilled human judges which substitutes for them when there is need for quick or frequent evaluations. ...

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  • As described in this paper, we propose a new automatic evaluation method for machine translation using noun-phrase chunking. Our method correctly determines the matching words between two sentences using corresponding noun phrases. Moreover, our method determines the similarity between two sentences in terms of the noun-phrase order of appearance. Evaluation experiments were conducted to calculate the correlation among human judgments, along with the scores produced using automatic evaluation methods for MT outputs obtained from the 12 machine translation systems in NTCIR7.

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  • In this paper, we explore correlation of dependency relation paths to rank candidate answers in answer extraction. Using the correlation measure, we compare dependency relations of a candidate answer and mapped question phrases in sentence with the corresponding relations in question. Different from previous studies, we propose an approximate phrase mapping algorithm and incorporate the mapping score into the correlation measure. The correlations are further incorporated into a Maximum Entropy-based ranking model which estimates path weights from training.

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  • Boost students’ vocabularies, bring new words to life, and prepare kids for standardized tests with these instant, high-interest writing prompts— one for each day of the school year! A rich selection of vocabulary words is correlated with the calendar to support vocabulary development all year long. Includes kid-friendly definitions, common synonyms and antonyms, and prompts that inspire a range of writing genres. For use with Grades 3-6.

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  • C H A P T E R 7 Two-way traffic – summarizing and representing relationships between two variables Chapter objectives This chapter will help you to: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ explore links between quantitative variables using bivariate analysis measure association between quantitative variables using Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient and the coefficient of determination quantify association in ordinal data using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient represent the connection between two quantitative variables using simple linear regression analysis use the technology...

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  • Microbial biomass formation on root surfaces can be measured in plants growing in solution with or without an inert solid support. Carbon flow to the biomass can be measured by growing plants in solution or soil on a continuous source of 14C02 and the expected biomass formation predicted. The lack of correlation between measured and predicted biomass can be explained by oligotrophic growth of the micro-organisms.

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  • Nowadays it is difficult to imagine an area of knowledge that can continue developing without the use of computers and informatics. It is not different with biology, that has seen an unpredictable growth in recent decades, with the rise of a new discipline, bioinformatics, bringing together molecular biology, biotechnology and information technology.

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  • Among the elements of the conferences that have to do with the elderly, the following are noted: education about the main health problems and the methods to prevent them; promotion of food supplies and adequate nutrition; supply of appropriate drinking water and basic sanitation; immunization against major infectious diseases; prevention and control of endemic diseases; appropriate treatment of common diseases and accident consequences and availability of essential medication, in addition to social resources, such as social groups, universities open to the seniors and awareness about the ph...

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  • Image registration is an emerging topic in image processing with many applications in medical imaging, picture and movie processing. The classical problem of image registration is concerned with finding an appropriate transformation between two data sets. This fuzzy definition of registration requires a mathematical modeling and in particular a mathematical specification of the terms appropriate transformations and correlation between data sets. Depending on the type of application, typically Euler, rigid, plastic, elastic deformations are considered.

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  • The usual approach of epidemiological studies is to measure the association between at least one specific pollutant (e.g. PM, NOx, CO or O3) and health outcomes. These specific components are usually highly correlated with other pollutants and are considered indicative of the complex pollutant mixture. It is unclear how much the associations reported in epidemiological studies represent the independent effects of specific pollutants.

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  • Texture, nutritive values and volatile compounds of Lentinula edodes, Pleurotus ostraetus and Pleroutus sajor-caju mushrooms were determined. The volatiles have been found out with an estimation approach by carrying out gas chromatography and mass spectrophotometer (GS–MS) Library Catalogue comparison. Neither regular increase nor decreases were observed for the values of texture, moisture, ash and protein values of L. eddoes.

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  • He anticipated that the tasks of stating preferences and making decisions about objects would most likely be associated with activity in the dorsolateral frontal and medial frontal cortices. Pinpointing the neural correlates of the emotional facet of aesthetic experience is more difficult, given that its very nature is less clear.

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  • Digital signal processing is currently in a period of rapid growth caused by recent advances inVLSI technology. This is especially true of three areas of optimum signal pro- cessing; namely, real-time adaptive signal processing, eigenvector methods of spectrum estimation, and parallel processor implementations of optimum filtering and prediction algorithms. In this edition the book has been brought up to date by increasing the emphasis on the above areas and including several new developments.

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  • Prevalence of severe mental distress and its correlates in a population-based study in rural south-west Uganda Eugene Kinyanda1*, Laban Waswa1, Kathy Baisley2 and Dermot Maher1,2 Abstract Background: The problem of severe mental distress (SMD) in sub-Saharan Africa is difficult to investigate given that a substantial proportion of patients with SMD never access formal health care. This study set out to investigate SMD and it’s associated factors in a rural population-based cohort in south-west Uganda.

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  • The development of Understanding Research in Clinical and Counseling Psychology is the result of our experiences teaching and working with students in professional psychology over many years. Although virtually all graduate programs require a course on research, the basis for that requirement is often shrouded in mystery for many students. Students enter their graduate training with the admirable ambition of learning skills important for assisting clients to make changes.

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  • These and all subsequent regressions include our full array of demographic and time controls, but we only report the distance coefficients for the sake of brevity.12 All regressions report robust standard errors, which are adjusted for possible correlation between the error terms of observations drawn from the same household. The first column of Table 2 summarizes the relationship between distance and diary week spending. Diary week spending declines significantly over the pay period at a rate of 0.8 percent per day. Over the entire pay period this implies a substantial decline. E.g.

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  • There are many books concerned with statistical theory. This is not one of them. This is a practical book. It is aimed at people who need to understand statistics, but not develop it as a subject. The typical reader might be a postgraduate student in health, life or social science who has no knowledge of statistics, but needs to use quantitative methods in their studies. Students who are engaged in qualitative studies will need to read and understand quantitative studies when they do their literature reviews, this book may be of use to them...

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  • A third empirical issue which has been raised is the correlation between stock return volatility and stock expected returns. Merton (1980) postulated that expected stock market return should be positively related with the variance of market return (and proportional to it). However, the empirical evidence is not conclusive. French, Schwert and Stambaugh (1987) and Campbell and Hentschel (1992) …nd this correlation to be positive, while Turner, Starz and Nelson (1989), Glosten, Jangannathan and Runkle (1993) and Nelson (1991) …nd this correlation to be negative.

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  • These cross-country differences may provide information on the effectiveness of national health systems. However, they may also reflect other factors—such as differences in research methods, sample sizes, sample periods and variable definitions. This paper re-examines differences between American and English income gradients in children’s health, paying careful attention to these issues.

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