Cosmic rays

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  • Gravitation, cosmology, and cosmic-ray physics are often regarded as subfields of astrophysics, as well as physics, because they are practiced by using physical techniques in an astronomical setting. However, this report makes no pretense of surveying all of astrophysics; that enormous task was excellently done by the Astronomy Survey Committee (George B. Field, chairman). Their report, Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980's (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1982), has been widely circulated, and its recommendations are currently being considered and implemented.

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  • With a global average irradiance of 342 W/m2, the Sun is by far the largest source of energy for planet Earth. In comparison, the internal energy produced by Earth itself is only about 0.087 W/m2 (Pollack et al., 1993), which in turn is 3.5 times larger than the 0.025 W/m2 of heat produced by the burning of fossil fuels. About 31% (31 units) of the solar energy which arrives at the top of the atmosphere is reflected back to space by scattering from clouds, aerosols, and the Earth’s surface. Almost 20 units of solar radiation are absorbed in the atmosphere....

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  • It is our pleasure to present the Proceedings of the VI International Workshop on Relativistic Aspects of Nuclear Physics (RANP 2000). This time, the meeting took place in Tabatinga, a pleasant beach on the southern coast of Brazil, for the first time out of the city of Rio de Janeiro. This series of workshops started in 1989, aiming to stimulate Brazilian scientific activities on Relativistic Nuclear Physics, especially among young researchers and graduate students.

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  • The idea for this book originated from the Joint Discussion 10 of the XXIV IAU General Assembly held in Manchester (England) in the summer of 2000. The extremely successful session on mergers in clusters of galaxies persuaded the publisher of this book to have a volume on such a topic. Clusters of galaxies are by now recognized to be not simple relaxed structures, but rather they are evolving via merging processes in a hierarchical fashion from poor groups to rich clusters.

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  • This book deals with topics in atomic and molecular structure and dynamics that are important to astronomy. Indeed, the topics selected are of central interest to the field of astronomy, many having been initiated by the needs of understanding worlds other than ours. Except for some lunar surface material returned by the Apollo missions, and material naturally delivered to us by cosmic rays, comets, and meteors, our only access to the other worlds of our astronomical Universe is through our observations of electromagnetic radiation from them.

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  • Preface This is the second National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) report that provides radiation protection guidance for astronauts working in low-earth orbit. The guidance in this Report supercedes the radiation exposure limit recommendations provided in NCRP Report No. 98 that was published in 1989. Readers may find some of the radiobiological information in Report No. 98 to continue to be relevant and of interest and, therefore, Report No. 98 will continue to be available from NCRP Publications.

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