Cost analysis

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  • This text offers the perfect introduction to social benefit-cost analysis. The book closely integrates the theory and practice of benefit-cost analysis using a spreadsheet framework. The spreadsheet model is constructed in a truly original way which contributes to transparency, provides a check on the accuracy of the analysis, and facilitates sensitivity, risk and alternative scenario assessment. A case study inco

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  • When we do a benefit-cost analysis, we have to value a range of commodities which are either inputs to or outputs of the project. Some of these commodities are traded (i.e. can be bought or sold on international markets) and some are non-traded (are not bought or sold in international markets but are only traded domestically).

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  • To make their long-run decisions, firms look at costs of various inputs and the various production technologies available for combining these inputs, and then decide which combination offers the lowest cost.

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  • Upon completion of this lesson, the successful participant will be able to: Minimum cost concepts, Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) analysis methods, Just‐in‐time (JIT) purchasing quantities based on EOQ, setup time reduction, push and pull inventory scheduling and EOQ.

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  • (BQ) Chapter 4: Fundamentals of cost analysis for decision making. Now that you are comfortable with CVP analysis and the impact of fixed versus variable costs, we can extend the concepts and apply the theories to a multitude of business conditions.

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  • This chapter explains how managers can use differential analysis to examine the effects on profits. Differential analysis helps managers answer relevant questions such as: What activities differ between the alternatives; how does that difference affect costs and profits?

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  • Measures the economic efficiency of the project: if net benefit is positive, the project is a more efficient allocation of resources than the alternative (the world “without” the project).

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  • A firm operates within the market and, simultaneously, it abandons the market in the sense that it replaces the market with command and control. A firm operates within the market and, simultaneously, it abandons the market in the sense that it replaces the market with command and control.

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  • To derive private cash flow, we begin by calculating overall project cash flow.The private cash flow is the cash flow on the investor’s own funds or ‘equity’.

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  • The market prices of project inputs or outputs will NOT change if: - the inputs or outputs are TRADED ie. price is determined in world markets) - the project is SMALL relative to the size of the economy in which is undertaken

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  • (BQ) Chapter 1 - Cost accounting: Information for decision making. After studying this chapter you should be able to: First, describe the way managers use accounting information to create value in organizations. Second, distinguish between the uses and users of cost accounting and financial accounting information. Third, explain how cost accounting information is used for decision making and performance evaluation in organizations.

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  • (BQ) Chapter 2: Cost concepts and behavior. Chapter 2 covers cost concepts and behavior. You want to be certain that you have a thorough understanding of these concepts before going forward. Understanding of the concepts in Chapter 2 is critical for success in this course.

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  • (BQ) Chapter 3: Fundamentals of cost-volume-profit analysis. In order to be a well prepared leader and manager, one must have a systematic method of analyzing the ever changing environment. Chapter 3 focuses on how decision-makers analyze changes in the volume of sales.

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  • (BQ) Chapter 5: Cost estimation. When managers make decisions they need to compare the costs (and benefits) among alternative actions. In this chapter, we discuss how to estimate the costs required for decision making.

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  • (BQ) Chapter 6: Fundamentals of product and service costing. This chapter provides an overview of alternative cost systems for product and service costing. Details and extensions to the basic models described here are presented in the following three chapters.

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  • (BQ) Chapter 7: Job costing. After studying this chapter you should be able to explain what job and job shop mean. Assign costs in a job cost system. Account for overhead using predetermined rates. Apply job costing methods in service organizations. Understand the ethical issues in job costing, and describe the difference between jobs and projects.

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  • (BQ) Chapter 8: Process costing. We continue our discussion of the details of a product costing system in Chapter 8 by developing a process costing system. As we discussed in Chapter 6, the difference between job order and process costing is the level at which costs are aggregated before they are assigned to the individual units of product. Process costing assumes that all units are homogeneous and follow the same path through the production process.

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  • (BQ) Chapter 9: Activity-based costing. Chapters 7 and 8 described product costing systems. In the last 15 years or so, many companies have experimented with and implemented costing systems based on production processes rather than accounting systems. One such system is activity-based costing, or ABC, which aids managers in the decision making process. Chapter 9 describes activity-based costing.

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  • (BQ) Chapter 10: Fundamentals of cost management. Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to: explain the concept of activity-based cost management; use the hierarchy of costs to manage costs; describe how the actions of customers and suppliers affect a firm’s costs; use activity-based costing methods to assess customer and supplier costs;...

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  • (BQ) Chapter 11 - Service department and joint cost allocation. We have seen how cost allocation is used to develop the costs of products, services, and customers. However, part of the indirect cost incurred is from departments that do not directly produce the product or service but rather provide service to the departments that do produce the product or provide the service. In this chapter we will allocate the costs of these “service” departments. We will also consider product costing when multiple products are produced from the same inputs in fixed proportions.

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