Cost of exclusion

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  • THE PRESIDENT OF LOCKHEED AIRCRAFT CORPORATION and Vice President Lyndon Johnson agreed to end Lockheed’s workforce segregation on May 25, 1961. Looking back, this contract, which was announced with great fanfare at the White House, signified far more than the public acknowledgment of systematic racial segregation in employment. It illustrated the leading role that prominent corporations were beginning to embrace by hiring and promoting the widest range of workers in this country.

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  • The Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) works exclusively in Latin America. It has just concluded a study and published a book called So- cial Investment Funds in Latin America: Past Performance and Future Role. It occurred about two years ago that social funds have become overwhelm- ingly popular all over the world. They started out as a way of respond- ing to adjustment and have developed in different ways, doing various things. The IDB decided to look at them to determine what is working and what is not working.

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  • In that spirit, we approach the costs of reaching the MDGs through two routes. In the first route, we focus exclusively on the first goal, namely, reducing income poverty by half between 1990 and 2015. Inasmuch as income poverty is linked to the other targets, such as infant mortality and primary enrolment, achieving this goal will go some way towards achieving the others. The link is stronger the more the actions to promote growth are associated with those to promote human development. If we estimated the costs by adding the costs of achieving each of the...

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Cost of individual peer counselling for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding in Uganda...

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  • Based on this understanding of women’s health, the exclusive focus adopted by this report on women and their corresponding health issues and needs is necessary to adequately address the topic. There are diseases which are unique, more prevalent, or more serious in women and for some diseases risk factors and interventions are different for women and men. Changes in diseases over time and across the lifespan also differ between women and men.

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  • This means that services which could potentially fall within the remit of both insurance schemes tend to be shifted to the LTC insurance because this is much cheaper. Secondly, although the revenues and costs of all the German health funds are equalized to take account of their respective member structures (age, gender) (Strukturausgleich), this is not the case for the revenues and costs of the LTC funds. This leads to a high disincentive for the LTC funds to minimize their costs.

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  • This article describes the ARIES methodology (ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services), an application of advanced ecoinformatics to support a more accurate, science-based ES analysis while at the same time reducing its complexity and cost for the user. As detailed later, ARIES is a web-accessible application (Figure 1) that builds and runs ad-hoc models of ecosystem services provision, use and spatial flow in a given area based on a user-dependent set of goals.

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  • Standardised, regularly available indicators to explain market developments for microfinance in Europe do not yet exist, or refer to Eastern Europe. Thus, we will focus in this section on the framework conditions for microfinance which are covered by the regularly updated Eurostat indicators for poverty and social inclusion, and by data on micro-enterprises. Specific aspects of the current crisis will be discussed later in this paper.

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  • The Threat Analyzer facility operates in the following manner: Manager receives alerts from the Sensors and organizes the alerts by the timestamps with alert; the most recent alerts are listed first. All alerts are stored in the database, while a preset number of the most recent alerts are also maintained in a cache, known as the alert cache. The alert cache contains only unacknowledged alerts, and is exclusive to a Real-Time Threat Analyzer query; a Historical Threat Analyzer query only pulls alerts from the database.

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  • This includes being at risk for all medical and long term care costs. A health center taking on this program must be comfortable assuming significant financial risk as well as be able to assume the significant regulatory requirements for PACE that parallel much larger Medicare Advantage health plans. Despite the risk, PACE is one of the few accepted models for fully integrating health and long term care services for disabled elders and is a very significant resource for communities that have the programs. PACE began as a Medicare waiver program but is now a full Medicare benefit.

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  • The verifiability requirement prevents the full capitalization of future cash flow effects in earnings. When future net cash inflows are highly probable from an outlay, but their magnitude is not verifiable, the accrual process generally excludes the outlay from current earnings and capitalizes the cost as an asset (e.g., cash outlays for the purchase of inventory or plant). The effect of the exclusion of future cash inflows and their associated current outlays from earnings on the time series properties of earnings is 'a priori' unclear.

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  • Consigning your car to a dealer or broker is simple. You either grant an exclusive or a non-exclusive right to sell your car to the dealer or broker of your choice. The cost of this option varies but is generally negotiable. A dealer is typically a licensed establishment with a permanent location or showroom that is open to the public. Brokers may or may not have a showroom, but tend to make connections between buyers and sellers based on their knowledge of the market and who wants to sell or buy at that moment. Both can make the selling process...

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  • Jamie looks for ways to reduce costs and improve efficiency in his business. His staff uses Microsoft operating systems exclusively, but he is tempted to move them onto Linux platforms. In his environment he can save tens of thousands of dollars in licensing fees. Plus he believes his current hardware will support Linux, whereas the next MS upgrade will cost him memory and cpu upgrades to meet necessary response times.

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  • Based on the final KQ s specified above, we generated a list of inclusion and exclusion criteria (Table 3). We included prospective and cross-sectional observational studies of health outcomes, trials of materials developed for low-health-literacy populations, and trials of interventions that compared materials designed to be “easier to read or understand” with standard materials. We limited studies to those with outcomes related to health and use and costs of health services.

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  • The central government has almost exclusive power to formulate strategic direction and to issue and enforce regulations. It exercises strict control over revenue collection, as well as in determining the benefits package, setting uniform requirements for provider reports, setting budgets, allocating financial resources, and engaging in contracting and payment. Local governments own most hospitals and other health care facilities and are responsible for the capital cost of health services and for ensuring the provision of care.

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  • However, an altruistic basis for donation does not necessarily exclude other approaches: systems based on altruism and systems involving some form of payment are not mutually exclusive. This holds in two circumstances: first, in the absence of reward, where payment may be used to recompense the donor for costs actually incurred in donating (that is, in order to avoid financial losses as a result of donation); and second, in the presence of reward, where some forms of reward (monetary or otherwise) may in fact co-exist with altruistic intent.

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  • This book is titled ‘Airport design and operation’. However, the reader will not find chapters devoted exclusively to airport design or airport operation. Airport design and airport operation are closely related and influence each other. A poor design affects the airport operation and results in increasing costs. On the other hand it is difficult to design the airport infrastructure without sound knowledge of the airport operation. This is emphasized throughout the book.

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  • The limited access to finance remains a key constraint on growth across the region, limiting the scope for smaller, less well-established firms to finance investment through the formal banking system. How to improve access and increase the level of financial intermediation remains a key policy challenge.

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  • this is a promising time to be working on ensuring the care of mothers and newborns. the global health community has at its disposal a range of cost-effective, proven solutions that can halt the majority of conditions causing maternal and neonatal deaths. 1, 2, 3, 4 these include antibiotics for infections, sterile blades to cut umbilical cords, misoprostol and oxytocin for preventing and treating postpartum hemorrhage, and teaching mothers the importance of immediate, exclusive breastfeeding and skin-to-skin contact to keep their babies warm.

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