Cranial nerves

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Cranial nerves anatomy, pathology, imaging" presents the following contents: Facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve.

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Cranial nerves anatomy, pathology, imaging" presents the following contents: Olfactory nerve, optic nerve, oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, trigeminal nerve, abducens nerve.

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  • Cranial nerves are involved in head and neck function, and processes such as eating, speech and facial expression. This clinically oriented survey of cranial nerve anatomy and function was written for students of medicine, dentistry and speech therapy, but will also be useful for postgraduate physicians and general practitioners, and specialists in head and neck healthcare (surgeons, dentists, speech therapists, etc.). After an introductory section surveying cranial nerve organization and tricky basics such as ganglia, nuclei and brain stem...

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  • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves although the optic nerve is really an extension of the brain rather than a peripheral nerve. The ability to test them swiftly, efficiently and to interpret the findings should be a core competency for general practitioncer.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Principles of anatomy and physiology" presents the following contents: The brain and cranial nerves, the autonomic nervous system, the special senses, the endocrine system, the lymphatic system and immunity, the respiratory system, the digestive system, metabolism and nutrition, the urinary system, the reproductive systems,...

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Color atlas and textbook of human anatomy Vol.3 - Nervous system and sensory organs" presents the following contents: The nervous system—an over all view; development and structure of the brain; basic elements of the nervous system, spinal cord and spinal nerves, brain stem and cranial nerves,... and other contents.

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  • (BQ) Part 2 book "Human anatomy" presents the following contents: The nervous system - the spinal cord and spinal nerves, the nervous system - the brain and cranial nerves, the nervous system - autonomic nervous system, the nervous system - general and special senses, the endocrine system, the respiratory system, the lymphoid system,...

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  • (BQ) Part 2 the book "Case-Based brain imaging" presents the following contents: Neurodegenerative/white matter diseases/metabolic, trauma, congenital/developmental malformations and syndromes, cranial nerves.

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  • Harrison's Internal Medicine Chapter 134. Botulism Definition Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by potent protein neurotoxins elaborated by Clostridium botulinum. Illness begins with cranial nerve involvement and proceeds caudally to involve the extremities. Cases may be classified as (1) food-borne botulism, from ingestion of preformed toxin in food contaminated with C.

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  • The study of the neurosciences has undergone remarkable growth over the past two decades. To a large extent, such advancements have been made possible through the development of new methodologies, especially in the fields of neuropharmacology, molecular biology, and neuroanatomy. Neuroscience courses presented in medical schools and related schools of health professions generally are unable to cover all the material that has evolved in recent years.

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  • Recurrent unilateral labyrinthine dysfunction, in association with signs and symptoms of cochlear disease (progressive hearing loss and tinnitus), is usually due to Ménière's disease (Chap. 30). When auditory manifestations are absent, the term vestibular neuronitis denotes recurrent monosymptomatic vertigo. Transient ischemic attacks of the posterior cerebral circulation (vertebrobasilar insufficiency) only infrequently cause recurrent vertigo without concomitant motor, sensory, visual, cranial nerve, or cerebellar signs (Chap. 364).

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  • Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by potent protein neurotoxins elaborated by Clostridium botulinum. Illness begins with cranial nerve involvement and proceeds caudally to involve the extremities. Cases may be classified as (1) food-borne botulism, from ingestion of preformed toxin in food contaminated with C. botulinum; (2) wound botulism, from toxin produced in wounds contaminated with the organism; and (3) intestinal botulism, from ingestion of spores and production of toxin in the intestine of infants (infant botulism) or adults.

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  • Oculomotor Nerve The third cranial nerve innervates the medial, inferior, and superior recti; inferior oblique; levator palpebrae superioris; and the iris sphincter. Total palsy of the oculomotor nerve causes ptosis, a dilated pupil, and leaves the eye "down and out" because of the unopposed action of the lateral rectus and superior oblique. This combination of findings is obvious. More challenging is the diagnosis of early or partial oculomotor nerve palsy.

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  • Migrainous neuralgia may be localized to the mouth. Episodes of pain and remission without identifiable cause and absence of relief with local anesthesia are important clues. Trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureaux) may involve the entire branch or part of the mandibular or maxillary branches of the fifth cranial nerve and produce pain in one or a few teeth. Pain may occur spontaneously or may be triggered by touching the lip or gingiva, brushing the teeth, or chewing. Glossopharyngeal neuralgia produces similar acute neuropathic symptoms in the distribution of the ninth cranial nerve.

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  • Infection of the submandibular and/or sublingual space typically originates from an infected or recently extracted lower tooth. The result is the severe, lifethreatening infection referred to as Ludwig's angina (see "Oral Infections," above). Infection of the lateral pharyngeal (or parapharyngeal) space is most often a complication of common infections of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract, including tonsillitis, peritonsillar abscess, pharyngitis, mastoiditis, or periodontal infection.

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  • I am way past grammar school, believe me, but the words “Go look it up” still strike terror in my heart. Not because I do not like to look up new terms—far from it. The problem is that I cannot look up just one! I get side- tracked right away by intriguing entries that I just might want to use someday. In the interest of expediency, it is much easier to have someone tell me the meaning. Medicine has its own unique breed of terms, founded from Greek, Latin, and who knows where else. The cur- rent Stedman’s Medical Dictionary is a two-volume set… a place where I could...

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  • (BQ) Part 1 book "Color atlas of anatomy - A photographic study of the human body" presents the following contents: General anatomy, head and neck (skull and muscles of the head, cranial nerves, brain and sensory organs, brain and sensory organs, neck and organs of the neck), trunk.

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  • Abducens Nerve The sixth cranial nerve innervates the lateral rectus muscle. A palsy produces horizontal diplopia, worse on gaze to the side of the lesion. A nuclear lesion has different consequences, because the abducens nucleus contains interneurons that project via the medial longitudinal fasciculus to the medial rectus subnucleus of the contralateral oculomotor complex. Therefore, an abducens nuclear lesion produces a complete lateral gaze palsy, from weakness of both the ipsilateral lateral rectus and the contralateral medial rectus.

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  • Clinical Manifestations Food-Borne Botulism After ingestion of food containing toxin, illness varies from a mild condition for which no medical advice is sought to very severe disease that can result in death within 24 h. The incubation period is usually 18–36 h but, depending on toxin dose, can range from a few hours to several days. Symmetric descending paralysis is characteristic and can lead to respiratory failure and death. Cranial nerve involvement, which almost always marks the onset of symptoms, usually produces diplopia, dysarthria, dysphonia, and/or dysphagia.

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  • Complications Patients with meningococcal meningitis may develop cranial nerve palsies, cortical venous thrombophlebitis, and cerebral edema. Children may develop subdural effusions. Permanent sequelae can include mental retardation, deafness, and hemiparesis. The major long-term morbidity of fulminant meningococcemia is the loss of skin, limbs, or digits that results from ischemic necrosis and infarction. Diagnosis Few clinical clues help the physician distinguish the patient with early meningococcal disease from patients with other acute systemic infections. ...

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