Letters of Credit are a time-tested instrument
of int e rnat ional t rade . They have been used
to expand markets for goods and
services and to facilitate a variety of financial
transactions, either as a method of payment or as
a credit enhancement, within as well as across the
borders of sovereign states.
There is a choice of books on securitization, collateralized debt obligations
(CDOs), and structured credit products. In fact, both of
us have written other books on the subject. This book, however, was
conceived as a short, handy and easy-to-comprehend guide to securitization,
minus technical details. The idea originated while both of
us were working on a comprehensive article on securitization: One
which says it all in a limited space and serves as a curtain-raiser
on the subject.
Given the variation in credit scoring methodologies, raw credit scores possess no
intrinsic meaning, and comparing raw scores across companies is of limited value.
Normalized or “standardized” results afford more meaningful comparisons. Averaged across
all companies, the spread in standardized scores between “no minority” and “all minority”2
ZIP Codes was 38.9 percentiles—a very considerable gap.
Nowadays, with the growing importance of the credit-based learning in current educational environment, strong academic advising system is an essential ingredient of learner success, supporting personalized advices aimed at effective and efficient learning. In that context, within the scope of this paper, an intelligent academic advising system approach is introduced focusing on integrating technology-enhanced learning methodologies into a pedagogy-driven and service-oriented architecture based on semantic technology. ...
The Complete Idiot’s Guide‚ to Personal Finance in Your 20s and 30s, Third Edition, clearly explains everything members of this age group need to know to get a handle on their pocketbook and their portfolio, from planning their personal finances to enhancing their current financial plan to getting better returns on their investments. This revised and updated third edition includes completely new materia
The ConnectM Energy Management Solution is designed to help you intelligently monitor, and optimise the energy consumed by the various energy assets like lighting, HVAC, and DG sets. ConnectM also leverages the solution framework for enhancing the in-building fire and security operations.Lighting & HVAC
ConnectM focuses on Energy technologies (Clean Tech) with its Energy Management Solution. Organizations spend typically about 20% of their energy on lighting, 60% on HVAC, 10% on their Datacenters and 20% on essential equipments & machineries....
Few services are more important in our country than providing high-quality potable water and
ensuring that wastewater is properly treated and returned to the environment. Most Americans take
for granted the tens of thousands of people who are employed daily in addressing America’s water
and wastewater needs. Utility managers are responsible for making sure that proper water and
wastewater services are provided to residents, businesses, industries, and other customers within a
community. Water and wastewater employees work in utility operations and administrative support
In its report to the G7 titled Report of the Financial Stability Forum on Enhancing Market and
the Financial Stability Forum (FSF) requested the Joint Forum to
conduct a stocktaking of the uses of external credit ratings by its member authorities in the
banking, securities and insurance sectors. The request also suggested that authorities
review whether their regulations and/or supervisory policies unintentionally give credit ratings
an official seal of approval that discourages investors from performing their own due
For millennia people have looked upward to the stars, interpreting patterns,
cycles and symbols; and for as long, people have been looking below at
birthstones and gemstones. Crystal Astrology unites and maps spiritual truth and
guidance with the stars and the Crystal Elements. The power contained in our
Crystal Elements enhances our native talents and attributes; it energises our life.
“Crystal Astrology” is a completely new phrase in our spiritual vocabulary.
The rules and regulations of the BSP that govern the credit card operations of the banks and
subsidiary credit card companies are not enough to screen out delinquent borrowers. As a
prudential measure to protect banks and subsidiary credit card companies, the BSP requires
these institutions to set up an appropriate system for managing their risk exposures to credit
card operations and to document these exposures in a complete and concise manner.
With several (not joint) guarantees enhanced by seniority and collateral, each
guaranteeing Member State would again remain liable for its own share of Stability Bond
issuance. However, to ensure that Stability Bonds would always be repaid, even in case of
default, a number of credit enhancements could be considered by the Member States. First,
senior status could be applied to Stability Bond issuance. Second, Stability Bonds could be
partially collateralised (e.g. using cash, gold, shares of public companies etc.).
A third role of banks in the money market is to provide, in exchange for fees, commitments that help
insure that investors in money market securities will be paid on a timely basis. One type of commitment is a
backup line of credit to issuers of money market securities, which is typically dependent on the financial
condition of the issuer and can be withdrawn if that condition deteriorates. Another type of commitment is a
credit enhancement—generally in the form of a letter of credit—that guarantees that the bank will redeem a
Data is increasingly generated by instruments that monitor the
environment – telescopes looking at the heavens, DNA sequenc-
ers decoding molecules, bar-code readers watching passing
freight-cars, patient monitors watching the life-signs of a person
in the emergency room, cell-phone and credit-card systems look-
ing for fraud, RFID scanners watching products flow through the
supply chain, and smart-dust sensing its environment.
In each of these cases, one wants to compare...
As an emphasis of this point, consider the contrast between the studies of tax evasion and in-
formality. Tax evasion studies primarily focus on incentives to evade and enforce.
1 By contrast,
studies of informality, usually in developing countries, consider ine¢ ciencies in production, hu-
man capital accumulation, and implications to industry composition.
2 A goal of this paper is
to bridge some of this gap by studying the industry distribution of semiformal income.
There are a number of private loan programs available to
credit-worthy borrowers. Additionally, some lenders make
available postgraduate loans for bar-review study. Eligibility
for these bar loans is based on the borrower’s credit history
and the lending institution’s willingness to lend.
The terms and conditions of these programs vary greatly.
Pay careful attention to the explanations found in loan
application brochures and consumer information. You can
also contact the individual programs or visit their websites
for further details.
The 10 least severe problems for small-business owners of the 75 business problems as-
sessed, beginning with the least severe and moving up the list are: “Exporting My Products/
Services,” “Undocumented Workers,” “Access to High-Speed Internet,” “Employee Turn-
over,” “Costs and Frequency of Lawsuits/Threatened Lawsuits,” “Using Social Media to
Promote Business (Facebook, Twitter, etc.
From its inception as a brief journal article in 1929, the Publication Manual of
the American Psychological Association has been designed to advance scholarship
by setting sound and rigorous standards for scientific communication. The
creators of the 1929 manuscript included psychologists, anthropologists, and business
managers who convened under the sponsorship of the National Research Council.
They sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify
the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension.
The Council of Development Finance Agencies is a national
association dedicated to the advancement of development finance
concerns and interests. CDFA is comprised of the nation’s leading
and most knowledgeable members of the development finance
community representing over 300 public, private, and non-profit
development entities. CDFA communicates with nearly 20,000
development finance stakeholders on a weekly basis.
India and Israel have raised over US$35 billion by tapping into the wealth of their diaspora
communities. These diaspora bonds represent a stable and cheap source of external finance,
often when countries lost access to international capital markets. For diaspora investors, these
bonds offer the opportunity to help their country of origin while also providing an investment
opportunity. The potential for diaspora bonds is significant for many countries with large
The Chancellor has ultimate authority over curriculum and the policies and procedures
associated with curriculum.
The Office of Academic Affairs shall oversee the curriculum process, ensuring that it conforms
to university and college policies and goals, and that the requested changes will enhance the
The Credit Curriculum and Academic Affairs Committee, hereinafter referred to as the CCAAC,
is a standing committee of the Faculty Senate, charged with deliberating over curriculum