Credit Guarantee Corporations (CGCs) are public
institutions that support small and medium
enterprises (SMEs) by serving as guarantors to
make it easier for them to borrow funds, which
are necessary for their business operations, from
SMEs play an important role in Japan's economy.
The credit guarantee system improves the credit
worthiness of SMEs, which lack physical collateral
and have weak credit standings. It helps direct
funds to them from private financial institutions
and provides them with smoother access to
One website’s visitor is another website’s customer, and bringing customers and retailers together is now a billion dollar international industry. Whilst Internet traffic crosses international borders with ease, payment for supplying that traffic does not. Members of the online publishing industry have come up with a novel solution – they have set up their own member-only international payments system.
Over the next decade, the two laws also will provide for about $900 billion in new subsidies, including a substantial expansion of Medicaid and new tax credits to offset the cost of health insurance premiums for low- and middle-income families and small businesses. In each state, exchanges will be established to facilitate the purchase of coverage and the delivery of the subsidies. Some companies whose workers receive subsidies for health insurance through the exchanges could be required to pay penalties.
Tham khảo sách 'think before you link shopping auctions business opportunities guaranteed loans or credit investment', kinh doanh - tiếp thị, quản trị kinh doanh phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả
This demand feature bridges the gap between borrowers and lenders. It
allows governments to issue the long-term bonds they prefer, while making
that debt eligible for purchase by money funds that must invest in short-term
Sound like the SIVs we discussed earlier? VRDNs are like SIVs in many
respects, but with some key differences. First, there is generally less concern
about the credit quality of the bonds in a VRDN than the securities held
in a SIV—governments are usually pretty good payers.
Credit derivatives fit neatly into this three-dimen sional scheme . Until recently,
credit rema ined one of the ma jor components of business risk for wh ich no
tailored risk-managemen t products existed. Credit risk managemen t for the
loan portfolio manager mean t a strategy of por tfolio diversification backed by
line limits, with an occas ional sale of positions in the secondary ma rket .
De riva tives users relied on purchasing insurance, let ters of credit, or guarantees,
or negotiating colla teralized ma rk- to-ma rket credit enhancemen t provisions in
As regards collateral, the pledging of collateral increases the PD when compared
with unsecured lending. Within secured loans, the PD of those that are 100% secured is
lower than that of those secured to a value of over 50% but not to a full 100%, although the
latter account for only a small percentage of the sample. Finally, loans guaranteed by a credit
institution or the public sector have a lower likelihood of default, less even than in the case of
unsecured loans. Note that this latter class of loan is subject to a double evaluation, i.e. by the
Adverse Credit History. To be eligible for a Federal PLUS loan,
the borrower may not have an adverse credit history, which is
defined as having a bankruptcy, foreclosure, repossession, tax
lien, wage garnishment or default determination in the last five
years or a current delinquency of 90 or more days.
Alternative Student Loan. See Private Student Loan.
Green bonds involve the issuing entity guaranteeing to repay the bond over a certain period of time,
plus either a fixed or variable rate of return. They can be asset backed securities
(see Breeze Bonds Case
Study – Box 3) tied to specific green infrastructure projects or plain vanilla “treasury-style” bonds issued
to raise capital that will be allocated across a portfolio of green projects (such as the World Bank‟s
I understand that the tax credit recipient must comply with Oregon Department of Revenue requirements to document that the credit has been appropriately assigned, allocated or transferred, and claimed, and that compliance is subject to audit.
. I understand that this tax credit application is a public record and that Oregon Department of Energy may be required by law to disclose information in this tax credit application to the public on request. I have marked any information that I request be kept confidential.
This paper will explore how the fifi nancial regulatory structure propelled these
three credit rating agencies to the center of the U.S. bond markets—and thereby
virtually guaranteed that when these rating agencies did make mistakes, those
mistakes would have serious consequences for the fifi nancial sector.
The credit began as part of a broader eﬀort by Senator Russell Long
(Dem.-La.) to derail congressional and presidential interest in a negative
income tax (NIT) in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The initial debates
highlighted a tension that exists to this day. The attraction of the NIT was
that—as a universal antipoverty program—it would provide a guaranteed
minimal standard of living to all in an administratively eﬃcient way
(through the tax system) without having the notches and high cumulative
marginal tax rates that characterize a patchwork system of narrower pro-
The unified procedure reduces the ex ante costs of choosing one procedure
over the other as well as the ex post costs of shifting from one procedure to the
other in case wrong procedure was chosen. The reform also introduced a
number of new systems into the rehabilitation proceeding, such as
comprehensive stay order, absentee voting, etc. Moreover, basic ideas of
debtor-in-possession (“DIP”) are incorporated into the receiver system, and
secured and unsecured creditors are guaranteed the liquidation value of their
collateral and the corporate value.
FCRA and market-based cost estimates alike take into
account expected losses from defaults by borrowers.
However, because FCRA estimates use Treasury interest
rates instead of market-based rates for discounting,
FCRA estimates do not incorporate the cost of the market
risk associated with the loans.
The federal government supports some private
activities—such as home ownership, postsecondary
education, and certain commercial ventures—through
credit assistance offered to individuals and businesses.
Some of that assistance is in the form of direct federal
loans, and some is through federal guarantees of loans
made by private financial institutions. At the end of fiscal
year 2011, about $2.7 trillion was outstanding in such
federal direct loans and loan guarantees.
Three options emerged for harmonising the scope of institutions that are deemed to provide
sufficient guarantees in terms of prudential regulation and capital requirements to fulfil the
task of being a depositary. The impact assessment concludes that both credit institutions and
regulated investment firms provide sufficient guarantees in terms of prudential regulation,
capital requirements and effective supervision to act as UCITS depositaries. Other institutions
(such as, e.g.
Progress Microfinance has been implemented through two actions, both of which are managed by
EIF. They are: 1) a guarantee instrument to providers of micro-credit (funded entirely by the
European Commission); and 2) a structured investment vehicle set up under Luxembourg law, the
European Progress Microfinance Fund, funded by the European Commission and the EIB.
It is also important to note that our definition of support is narrow and excludes certain instances of
sponsor intervention to protect MMMFs from losses. Specifically, direct support excludes support in the
form of Capital Support Agreements (CSAs) and/or Letters of Credit (both of which provided guarantees
on individual or a portfolio of securities) that were not drawn upon - even where such facilities were
important in maintaining the market value NAVs of the funds.
Government incentives and guarantees can then also be used – from support for research and
development (R&D) - which affects operational efficiency- to investment incentives (capital grants, loan
guarantees and low-interest rate loans), taxes (accelerated depreciation, tax credits, tax exemptions and
rebates), and price-based policies at the output stage (which affect revenue streams - e.g. feed-in tariffs), or
policies which target the cost of investment in capital by hedging or mitigating risk.
With several (not joint) guarantees enhanced by seniority and collateral, each
guaranteeing Member State would again remain liable for its own share of Stability Bond
issuance. However, to ensure that Stability Bonds would always be repaid, even in case of
default, a number of credit enhancements could be considered by the Member States. First,
senior status could be applied to Stability Bond issuance. Second, Stability Bonds could be
partially collateralised (e.g. using cash, gold, shares of public companies etc.).