China’s rural financial system has changed dramatically over the last twenty five years, but rural
financial reforms were lagging behind changes in the real economy and required further economic
transition. As in other countries moving towards a market economy, the reform of banking systems
and the creation of efficient financial markets in China continues to be among the most difficult
reform issues. Poorly functioning official financial markets push rural population to rely on informal
Thesis purpose: Chemical system to clarify the basic theoretical issues of governance of commercial banks credit activity in the economy. Analysing the current situation credit management activity of commercial banks in Laos during the current period. Giving the achievements and limitations of the credit administration operations in Laos’s banks; on that basis, providing solutions for credit management of commercial banks in Laos in the process of international economic integration.
Research objectives: Research into the development of microfinance operations, primarily lending small amounts, of credit institutions. Time of study: Secondary data on the credit institutions and Lien Viet Post Join Stock Commercial Bank and elecommunications were collected during the period 2010-2014.
This book is is designed for the risk analyst who wishes to better understand
the mathematical models and methods used in the management of operational
risk in the banking and insurance sectors. Many of the techniques in this book
are more generally applicable to a wide range of risks. However, each sector
has its unique characteristics, its own data sources, and its own risk migation
and management strategies. Other major risk classes in the banking sector
include credit risk and market risk.
In this chapter we introduce the main, and first, concepts that one has to grasp in order to
build, evaluate, purchase and sell financial structured products. Structured finance denotes
the art (and science) of designing financial products to satisfy the different needs of investors
and borrowers as closely as possible. In this sense, it represents a specific technique and
operation of the financial intermediation business. In fact, the traditional banking activity,
On September 15, 2008, Lehman Brothers, the fourth-largest U.S. investment
bank, filed for bankruptcy, marking the largest bankruptcy in U.S. history and
the burst of the U.S. subprime mortgage crisis. Concerns about the soundness of
U.S. credit and financial markets led to tightened global credit markets around
the world. Spreads skyrocketed. International trade plummeted by double digits,
as figure O.1 illustrates. Banks reportedly could not meet customer demand to
finance international trade operations, leaving a trade finance “gap” estimated at
around $25 billion.
The ConnectM Energy Management Solution is designed to help you intelligently monitor, and optimise the energy consumed by the various energy assets like lighting, HVAC, and DG sets. ConnectM also leverages the solution framework for enhancing the in-building fire and security operations.Lighting & HVAC
ConnectM focuses on Energy technologies (Clean Tech) with its Energy Management Solution. Organizations spend typically about 20% of their energy on lighting, 60% on HVAC, 10% on their Datacenters and 20% on essential equipments & machineries....
Few services are more important in our country than providing high-quality potable water and
ensuring that wastewater is properly treated and returned to the environment. Most Americans take
for granted the tens of thousands of people who are employed daily in addressing America’s water
and wastewater needs. Utility managers are responsible for making sure that proper water and
wastewater services are provided to residents, businesses, industries, and other customers within a
community. Water and wastewater employees work in utility operations and administrative support
ABSTRACT Vietnam’s foreign exchange (forex) market has remained relatively poorly developed despite more than two decades of general reform throughout the economy. This paper adopts a microstructure approach to the analysis of the root-causes underlying the operational deficiencies of this market. The analysis suggests that the authorities have tended to follow a de facto adjustable peg exchange rate regime which, in turn, has acted as a retardant to the development of the country’s forex market. Consequently, market signals have become increasingly non-transparent.
Over time, social funds have proven that they effectively can coordinate
among entities, channel resources, develop social infrastructure, pro-
mote the participation of local authorities and the community, and inte-
grate the private sector and civil society in their programs. Their trans-
parency in operations is widely acknowledged and has resulted in
financial and technical support from international entities. Impacts of
social funds are commensurate with the budgets that are allocated to
The IDB hired consultants who looked in-depth at social funds in Bo-
livia, Chile, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua and
Peru. They spoke to recipients of projects and assessed their satisfac-
tion. The IDB examined these projects for sustainability; it also did a
desk study of all social funds.
Social funds were created as a response to an alarming rise in poverty.
Some social funds have political objectives. FONAPAS helped in the
consolidation of the peace process in Guatemala. FONCODES was aimed
at ensuring governability in frontier regions of Peru.
We model the impact of bank mergers on loan competition, reserve holdings,
and aggregate liquidity. A merger changes the distribution of liquidity
shocks and creates an internal money market, leading to financial cost efficiencies
and more precise estimates of liquidity needs. The merged banks
may increase their reserve holdings through an internalization effect or decrease
them because of a diversification effect. The merger also affects loan
market competition, which in turn modifies the distribution of bank sizes
and aggregate liquidity needs.
A focus on developing countries and transition economies. These are investment
funds included in the stock-taking focus on investments in developing countries,
particularly SSA and transition economies. Whenever the fund’s operations also include
former transition economies (e.g. EU-member countries such as Romania and Poland),
the respective fund has been included in the stock-taking, due to the particular interest in
the EECA agricultural sector. These funds also tended to have a more private focus than
many in SSA and serve as examples for other regions....
Carl Atsushi HIRANO is well-known as bestselling author in Japan and currently President and CEO of NetStrategy, Inc., Professor at Business Breakthrough University hosted by Kennichi Ohmae, guest speaker at the Harvard Business School, visiting professor of Okinawa Graduate School, world famous as the mastermind of the Osaifu-Keitai mobile wallet credit system. Born in the United States, he has a B.A. in economics from the University of Tokyo.
The need to train those who will be responsible for the O&M is an
important institutional issue. Sometimes those responsible may be
in the community, sometimes they may be a private contractor, or
sometimes they may be in the ministry. User training is needed, par-
ticularly in water supply and sanitation. Sanitation education has
not always been provided and is very important.
If the operator is going to be the sectoral agency, sometimes basic
budgetary reforms need to be addressed.
Recent imperfect capital market theories (e.g., Bernanke and Gertler
(1989), Gertler and Gilchrist (1994), Kiyotaki and Moore (1997)) predict
that changing credit market conditions can have very di®erent e®ects on
small and large ¯rms' risk. Agency costs induced by asymmetry in the infor-
mation held by ¯rms and their creditors make it necessary for ¯rms to use
collateral when borrowing in the credit markets. Small ¯rms, it is argued,
typically do not have nearly as much collateral as large ¯rms and will not
have the same ability to raise external funds.
The cash ﬂows diagram for the mexican CAT bond is described in Figure 4.
CAT-MEX Ltd. issues the bond that is placed among investors and invests the
proceeds in high quality assets within a collateral account. Simultaneous to the
issuance of the bond, CAT-MEX Ltd. enters into a reinsurance contract with
SRC. The proceeds of the bond will also serve to provide SRC coverage for earth-
quakes in Mexico in connection with an insurance agreement that FONDEN has
entered with the European Finance Reinsurance Co. Ltd., an indirect wholly-
owned subsidiary of SRC.
It is scarcely to be expected that banks operating in dif-
ferent regions, serving different classes of customers and fol-
lowing different policies, would have uniform experience.
Therefore, for each of the factors to be analyzed, we have
supplemented the composite analysis for all banks by an in-
dividual analysis for each bank that submitted a sufficiently
large sample. These individual analyses, which are presented
in Appendix B, indicate the degree of variation among banks
and the extent to which the average experience of all banks
typifies theexperience of any one bank.
The paper entitled “International Convergence of Capital Measurement and
published by the Basel Committee on Banking Super-
vision provides only general information on interest rate risk in the banking
book. More speciﬁ c information is contained in an additional paper entitled
“Principles for the Management and Supervision of Interest Rate Risk” (July
The Co-Operative Societies today are playing vital role in strengthening the National
economy. It is hardly to be emphasized that the importance of the Co-operative movement
in our country has greatly increased in regard to the upliftment of the economic condition of
the people in general and the weaker section of the society in particular. Their sphere of
activities has by now widened to a great extent. Besides arranging for credit facilities for
agricultural purposes they are catering to the other needs of the society as well.