Credit provision

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  • The authors study the effect of financial crises on trade credit in a sample of 890 firms in six emerging economies. They find that although provision of trade credit increases right after the crisis, it consequently collapses in the following months and years. The authors observe that firms with weaker financial position (for example, high pre-crisis level of short-term debt and low cash stocks and cash flows) are more likely to reduce trade credit provided to their customers.

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  • The Uniform Rules for Bank-to-Bank Reimbursements under Documentary Credits (“Rules”), ICC Publication No. 525, shall apply to all Bank-to-Bank Reimbursements where they are incorporated into the text of the Reimbursement Authorisation. They are binding on all parties thereto, unless otherwise expressly stipulated in the Reimbursement Authorisation. The Issuing Bank is responsible for indicating in the Documentary Credit (“Credit”) that Reimbursement Claims are subject to these Rules.

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  • I have a tribal court protection order, but I am leaving tribal lands to live, work, or visit somewhere else. Is my protection order valid? State and territorial law enforcement and courts are mandated under the full faith and credit provision of VAWA to fully enforce protection orders issued by tribal courts. Enforcement may be by civil law or criminal prosecution, or both. Your protection order from a tribal court is required to receive the same kind of response outside Indian Country as it is would be inside Indian Country. Other tribes are also required to enforce your order....

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  • if you answer “yes” to any of the above questions, then this guide is for you. This guide is for you, or someone you know who has, or plans to seek, a protection order and may travel across county, state, territorial, tribal, or international lines, on to military installations, or within U.S. maritime jurisdictions. This information is intended to help you understand the full faith and credit provision of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), 18 U.S.C.

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  • Under the full faith and credit provision, law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and the courts are required to enforce all protection orders, whether issued in their jurisdiction or in another state, tribe, or territory. That means if police are authorized to arrest someone for violation of a local order, they may also arrest for violation of a non-local order. If law enforcement has warrantless arrest authority in the enforcing location, they should arrest for all violations they observe or believe occurred there.

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  • I have a state protection order, but I am moving to, living on, or visiting an Indian reservation. Is my protection order valid? The full faith and credit provisions of VAWA require tribal courts to recognize and enforce protection orders from all states, tribes, and territories. If you have a state or territorial protection order and you are living or staying in Indian Country, you should know that most tribal courts have the authority to enforce all protection orders issued through civil or criminal proceedings.

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  • Over the next decade, the two laws also will provide for about $900 billion in new subsidies, including a substantial expansion of Medicaid and new tax credits to offset the cost of health insurance premiums for low- and middle-income families and small businesses. In each state, exchanges will be established to facilitate the purchase of coverage and the delivery of the subsidies. Some companies whose workers receive subsidies for health insurance through the exchanges could be required to pay penalties.

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  • This category features the broadest application of the use of credit ratings. Member authorities from every jurisdiction submitting responses indicated that their LRSPs contained provisions using credit ratings for the purpose of determining net or regulatory capital, and more LRSPs are applied to capital requirements than to any other category of use. Credit ratings were generally used in those LRSPs as a means of mapping credit risks to capital charges or risk weights.

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  • Convertible bonds can be difficult to value, given their hybrid nature of containing elements of both debt and equity. Further complications arise due to the frequent presence of additional options such as callability and puttability, and contractual complexities such as trigger prices and “soft call” provisions, in which the ability of the issuing firm to exercise its option to call is dependent upon the history of its stock price.

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  • We model the impact of bank mergers on loan competition, reserve holdings, and aggregate liquidity. A merger changes the distribution of liquidity shocks and creates an internal money market, leading to financial cost efficiencies and more precise estimates of liquidity needs. The merged banks may increase their reserve holdings through an internalization effect or decrease them because of a diversification effect. The merger also affects loan market competition, which in turn modifies the distribution of bank sizes and aggregate liquidity needs.

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  • The need to train those who will be responsible for the O&M is an important institutional issue. Sometimes those responsible may be in the community, sometimes they may be a private contractor, or sometimes they may be in the ministry. User training is needed, par- ticularly in water supply and sanitation. Sanitation education has not always been provided and is very important. If the operator is going to be the sectoral agency, sometimes basic budgetary reforms need to be addressed.

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  • Senator Long undoubtedly understood that once a provision is in the tax code, it is likely to remain. Indeed, the EITC remained in the tax code each subsequent year until it was made permanent in 1978. Legislation in 1978 also added a flat range to the EITC’s phase-in and phaseout ranges, as shown in figure 3.1. 5 An “advance payment” option was also added to the credit in 1978, so that workers would be able, if they desired, to receive the credit incrementally throughout the year. Spending on the safety net slowed in the late 1970s and shrank in the 1980s.

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  • However, a number of member jurisdictions’ national laws implementing the investment rules of the current Solvency I Directives15 do refer to, or place reliance on, ratings in order to determine whether a certain asset is authorised or eligible to cover technical provisions. Moreover, in a number of member jurisdictions, (re)insurance undertakings are required, as part of their internal reinsurance policy, to pay special attention to the financial strength of their reinsurers, using ratings as a proxy.

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  • Credit derivatives fit neatly into this three-dimen sional scheme . Until recently, credit rema ined one of the ma jor components of business risk for wh ich no tailored risk-managemen t products existed. Credit risk managemen t for the loan portfolio manager mean t a strategy of por tfolio diversification backed by line limits, with an occas ional sale of positions in the secondary ma rket . De riva tives users relied on purchasing insurance, let ters of credit, or guarantees, or negotiating colla teralized ma rk- to-ma rket credit enhancemen t provisions in Master...

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  • If a violation does occur, enforcement action may be taken by law enforcement or through the civil court system. Law enforcement officers may be able to assist you by treating your order as if it were issued in their jurisdiction. Depending on the laws and policies of that jurisdiction, officers may be allowed to pick up children, or even arrest for violation of the custody provision in your protection order. An advocate will be able to give you information regarding the law enforcement response in the jurisdiction.

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  • Under VAWA, a “protection order” is defined as “. . . any injunction, restraining order, or any other order issued by a civil or criminal court for the purpose of preventing violent or threatening acts or harassment against, sexual violence, or contact or communication with or physical proximity to, another person . . . .” This expansive definition also includes “any support, child custody or visitation provisions, orders, remedies or relief issued as part of any protection order, restraining order or injunction.” 18 U.S.C. § 2266(5)....

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  • One key distinction is that business angels invest their own funds, unlike VC funds, who primarily invest funds committed by others (e.g. institutional investors). For this reason they typically invest in companies with which they can maintain close contacts (OECD, 2006). Furthermore, typically companies that receive BA financing are smaller (i.e. in terms of turnover – see also table 1 later in this text) than VC backed companies. Most of the companies that receive BA financing, do not receive VC financing at the same time.

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  • Information asymmetry can be reduced via three ways: a firm’s ability to signal its credit worthiness (incl. an institutional assessment or rating by an independent agency and the provision of collateral), a strong relationship between lender and borrower, and through due diligence/lenders’ examination (screening). However, this means on the other hand that new or young firms, with a lack of collateral and by definition without track record are the ones with the greatest degree of difficulty accessing debt capital (Equinox, 2002).

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  • The Communication highlighted the role played by microfinance institutions/micro-credit providers in developing the provision of micro-credit in Europe and stressed that adequate technical support is necessary to help these operators release their potential.

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  • For banks, on the other hand, taking on credit exposure is a defining element of their business, and risk management of lending activities is their major challenge. Banking risk management practices are currently undergoing a significant transformation, entailing a greater emphasis on the systematic assessment of the quality of all credits and the production of detailed quantitative estimates of credit risk. These quantitative measures are being used by banks to inform their internal estimates of the amount of provisions and capital necessary to support these risks.

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