Xem 1-20 trên 36 kết quả Crop modelling
  • Information about climate1 is used to make decisions every day. From farmers deciding which crops to plant next season to mayors in large cities deciding how to prepare for future heat waves, and from an insurance company assessing future flood risks to a national security planner assessing future conflict risks from the impacts of drought, users of climate information span a vast array of sectors in both the public and private spheres. Each of these communities has different needs for climate data, with different time horizons (see Box 1) and different tolerances for uncertainty...

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  • Active Learning (AL) is typically initialized with a small seed of examples selected randomly. However, when the distribution of classes in the data is skewed, some classes may be missed, resulting in a slow learning progress. Our contribution is twofold: (1) we show that an unsupervised language modeling based technique is effective in selecting rare class examples, and (2) we use this technique for seeding AL and demonstrate that it leads to a higher learning rate. The evaluation is conducted in the context of word sense disambiguation. ...

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  • Landfill gas from a source of green energy, clean, renewable and can be used to create electricity, or used in the energy industry. This paper reviews the potential energy recovery landfill gas from municipal solid waste, to reducing methane emissions in particular, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions in general. In addition, this paper provides an assessment using the model of methane generated from landfill municipal solid waste and generate energy potential of gas recovered. In particular, this paper uses a life cycle assessment methods ......

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  • The utility of primer pairs in SCoTs was advocated by Gorji et al. (2011). SCoT markers are generally reproducible, and it is suggested that primer length and annealing temperature are not the sole factors determining reproducibility (Gorji et al., 2011). They are dominant markers, however, while a number of co-dominant markers are also generated during amplification, and thus they could be used for genetic diversity analysis (Collard & Mackill, 2009b). This has been validated through study of genetic diversity among rice varieties (Collard & Mackill, 2009b).

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  • The theoretical metrics developed, such as genetic variance and heritability (Fisher, 1930; Wright, 1931), provided the quantitative standards necessary for the evolutionary synthesis. Further research has focused on the origin of genetic diversity, its maintenance and its role in evolution. Simple questions such as “who breeds with whom” initiated studies on the relatedness of populations.

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  • Developmental biology: The anatomical tradition The Questions of Developmental Biology Anatomical Approaches to Developmental Biology Comparative Embryology Evolutionary Embryology Medical Embryology and Teratology Mathematical Modeling of Development Principles of Development:

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  • In the beginning, the word ‘Project’ was associated primarily with engineering, in particular with developments at the forefront of technology. The next place it cropped up was in Information Technology where Software Programming required sophisticated project methodology. Today, though, a project mentality is essential in our topsy turvey world of the new millennium. The organisations that will remain healthy are the ones that have an effective and widely understood approach to managing projects as a way of implementing change. ...

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  • The industrial discharge carries various types of contaminants to the river, lake and groundwater. The quality of freshwater is very important as it is highly consumed by human for drinking, bathing, irrigation and etc. The presence of contaminants from industrial contaminant within the water may reduce the yield of crops and the growth of plant and it will harmful to the aquatic living organism too.

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  • Over the next 10 years, federal spending on crop insurance is projected to outpace spending on traditional commodity programs by about one-third, which might capture the attention of budget cutters looking for potential sources of savings. Insurance companies, farm groups, and some members of Congress are concerned that additional reductions in federal support will negatively impact the financial health of the crop insurance industry and possibly jeopardize the delivery of crop insurance.

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  • As in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the majority of poor smallholders in Malawi are left out of the agricultural extension and credit systems. These households, characterized by landholdings of less than 1 hectare and very low crop yields, are unable to grow enough food to feed themselves even though they focus much effort on producing food crops, especially maize.

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  • In case of the control period (1961-1990), the initial and the lateral boundary conditions for the regional model are taken from (i) the ERA-40 reanalysis database (Uppala et al., 2005) using 1° horizontal resolution, compiled by the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), and (ii) the HadCM3 ocean-atmosphere coupled GCM using ~150 km as a horizontal resolution. For the validation of the PRECIS results CRU TS 1.2 (Mitchell & Jones, 2005) datasets were used.

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  • Climate change can also be expected to have serious consequences on water resources. Melting glaciers, higher intensity and more variable rainfall events, and increasing temperatures will contribute to increased inland flooding, water scarcity and decreasing water quality. Overall, the greatest human requirement for freshwater resources is for crop irrigation, particularly for farming in arid regions and in the great paddy fields of Asia.

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  • A primary justification for government intervention has been the failure of private agricultural insurance markets (see, for example, Appel, Lord, and Harrington, 1999; Hazell, Pomerada, and Valdez, 1986; Goodwin and Smith, 1995). In a 1922 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) bulletin, Valgren describes the disastrous experiences of fire insurance companies that offered crop insurance in the Dakotas and Montana in 1917 and the early 1920s. Severe droughts caused widespread crop losses in those states.

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  • As a member of the Advisory Panel of NATO's Science Program, "Science and Technology Policy and Organization (STPO)," the major sponsor of this ARW, and due to my professional and personal interest in the topic, I had the pleasure of participating in the Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) in Krakow 5-9 November 2002. The NATO Science Program attempts to have Panel representation at all major events.

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  • Even in work that lies so near the fortuities of animate nature as dairying, stock−breeding, and the improvement of crop plants, a determinate, reasoned routine replaces the rule of thumb. By mechanical control of his materials the dairyman, e.g., selectively determines the rate and kind of the biological processes that change his raw material into finished product.

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  • Sexual harassment offline is a well-known, highly prevalent, extensively investigated, and intensively treated social problem. An accepted model classifies sexual harassment behaviors into the categories of gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Theory and research show that sexual harassment behavior occurs as a product of person × situation characteristics and has substantial personal and organizational costs.

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  • The management discipline faces massive challenges. Entirely new business models are enabled, while many traditional business models become obsolete. Moreover, integration and automation require a radical redesign of internal processes (Davenport, 1993). Managing alliances, distributed process man- agement, and application integration are recent entries on nearly every top management agenda (Österle, Fleisch, Alt, 2000).

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  • This book is a critical account of tropical agricultural science in the twentieth century, with its successes as well as its fads and failures. Its coverage reaches back into the beginning of the twentieth century, but the second half of the century takes place of choice. Which means that the story is closely linked with that of post-colonial development and scrutinises the role agricultural science has played (or failed to play) in the advancement of the tropical smallholder, in particular in Africa....

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  • The World Bank recognizes that large-scale agricultural investment poses significant challenges that can be addressed successfully only if stakeholders collaborate effectively. Together with the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, International Fund for Agricultural Development, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, and other partners, it has formulated seven principles that all involved should adhere to for invest- ments to do no harm, be sustainable, and contribute to development. These principles are summarized in box 1.

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  • Increasing farm productivity is generally a precondition to improving food security and income in rural areas. This can also relieve pressures to expand farming and grazing into ecologically fragile areas and reduce reliance on unsustainable resource extraction activities. Efforts to raise agricultural production – by improving crop yields, technology, and access to inputs and markets and fostering a shift towards higher value crops – are thus often seen as a means of simultaneously addressing growth, equity and environmental issues in rural areas....

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