It was not until the eighteenth century that the subject of this book, the pollination
services of bees, began to be understood and valued. Nevertheless, the association
between man and bees has been long and close, and dates from at least 2400 BC.
Beekeeping with the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, was a well-developed craft in
ancient Egypt during the fi fth dynasty of the Old Kingdom.
Plant biotechnology Biotechnology: “the application of scientific methods to manipulate living cells or organisms for practical purposes.” Nabors; Chapter 14. “For centuries, humankind has made improvements to crop plants through selective breeding and hybridization — the controlled pollination of plants. Plant biotechnology is an extension of this traditional plant breeding with one very important difference — plant biotechnology allows for the transfer of a greater variety of genetic information in a more precise, controlled manner.” From Monsanto web page on biotechnology. ...
Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the main pollinating agents for numerous
plants and fruit trees and, hence, play a key role in agriculture and
more generally in the maintenance of ecological biodiversity. Although
these social insects are not the targets of all the different agrochemical
treatments used in crop protection, they are widely affected by pesticides.
This book is a compilation of 29 chapters focused on: pesticides and food production, environmental effects of pesticides, and pesticides mobility, transport and fate. The first book section addresses the benefits of the pest control for crop protection and food supply increasing, and the associated risks of food contamination.