Autophagy and apoptosis play important roles in the development, cellular
homeostasis and, especially, oncogenesis of mammals. They may be trig-gered by common upstream signals, resulting in combined autophagy and
Cells must be able to process multiple information in parallel and, more-over, they must also be able to combine this information in order to trigger
the appropriate response. This is achieved by wiring signalling pathways
such that they can interact with each other, a phenomenon often called
Histones are nuclear proteins that package and order the DNA into nucleosomes . Five
major families of histones exist: H1 (H5), H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. Two copies of the core
histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4 form the octameric nucleosome core particles . Unlike the
other histones, only one copy of the linker histone H1 is present and stabilizes the DNA,
which is wrapped around the core nucleosome . Linker histones bind to both the
nucleosome and the linker DNA region (approximately 20 to 80 nucleotides in length)
One of the hallmarks of cAMP is its ability to inhibit proliferation in many
cell types, but stimulate proliferation in others. Clearly cAMP has cell type
specific effects and the outcome on proliferation is largely attributed to
crosstalk from cAMP to the RAS⁄RAF⁄mitogen-activated protein kinase
(MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK)/
We report the results of experiments on economic decisions with two populations,
one of healthy elderly individuals (average age 82) and one of younger students (average
age 20). We examine confidence, decisions under uncertainty, differences between
willingness to pay and willingness to accept and the theory of mind (strategic thinking).
Our findings indicate that the older adults’ decision behavior is similar to that of young
adults, contrary to the notion that economic decision making is impaired with age.
Freshwater sources and oceans have an amazing natural ability to break down some
waste materials, but not in the quantities discarded by today' s society. The overload that
results eventually puts the ecosystem out of balance.
Sometimes nature itself can create these imbalances. But most often our waterways are
being polluted by municipal, agricultural and industrial wastes, including many toxic
synthetic chemicals which cannot be broken down at all by natural processes.
Television has attracted young viewers since broadcasting be-
gan in the 1940s. Concerns about its effects on the cognitive devel-
opment of young children emerged almost immediately and have
been fueled by academic research showing a negative association
between early-childhood television viewing and later academic
1 These ﬁndings have contributed to a belief among
the vast majority of pediatricians that television has “negative
effects on brain development” of children below age ﬁve (Gentile
et al. 2004).
Vaults are highly conserved, ubiquitous ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles
with an unidentified function. For the three protein species (TEP1,
VPARP, and MVP) and a small RNA that comprises vault, expression of
the unique 100-kDa major vault protein (MVP) is sufficient to form the
basic vault structure.
The TrueNet® CopperTen® F/UTP Solution supports 10 Gigabit Ethernet to a full 100m. At high
frequencies associated with 10 Gigabit per second alien crosstalk (interference between adjacent
cables) hinders performance. The shielding used in the CopperTen F/UTP solution effectively
eliminates all alien crosstalk allowing data transmission rates of 10 Gigabits per second.