Exploring for oil and gas Traps is one of the main aim of the “Crude Oil Exploration in
the World” which represents an important part of the Treatise of Petroleum Geology
and Geochemistry in the world.
We have chosen eleven distinguished papers from the entire submitted researches
around the world in the field of oil and gas exploration and environmental application
from the world. These researches represent a guide to the petroleum geologists and
geochemists all over the world.
Phương pháp chuyển từ môi trường mô phỏng này sang môi trường mô phỏng khác, lựa chọn hệ nhiệt động và cấu tử trong dầu thô, đặc trưng dầu thô trong HYSYS,... là những nội dung chính trong bài giảng "Crude Oil Characterization: HYSYS Oil-1". Mời các bạn cùng tham khảo.
Worldwide, crude oil demand is unceasingly increasing. As a response, Enhanced Oil
Recovery (EOR) processes have re‐gained interest from the research and development
phases to the oilfield EOR implementation stage. This renewed interest has been also
furthered by the current high oil price environment, the maturation of oilfields
worldwide, and few new‐well discoveries. Concurrently, environmental concerns and
public pressure related to crude oil pollution control and remediation of oilcontaminated
sites are becoming greater than ever....
In the early 1970s, it was clear that the world economy was facing recession and that
the four-fold increase in crude-oil prices by OPEC, a monetary crisis, and inflation
were the main reasons for such a trend. The four-fold increase in crude-oil prices
in 1974, which was intensified in 1979, is why 1974 and 1979 are called the years
of “the first” and “the second crude-oil shock”, respectively. Increases in crude-oil
prices had an effect on all importing countries, more precisely on their economic
The purpose of this Note is to provide an informed, plausible series of proved reserves and annual reserve changes by type for crude oil and natural gas (dry) that links these two different series of reserve estimates over the late 1970s. It describes the basic differences between the two published series of reserve estimates, explores the possible reasons for differences between the two series, a......
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về sinh học được đăng trên tạp chí sinh học Journal of Biology đề tài: Selection of allozyme genotypes of two species of marine gastropods (genus Littorina) in experiments of environmental stress by nonionic detergent and crude oil-surfactant mixtures
In the late 1970s and early 1980s, when crude oil prices were high, government and private-sector energy experts took a hard look at the costs and benefits of extracting oil from the vast deposits of oil shale that lie beneath the western United States (much of it under government land). Oil prices soon subsided, and interest
The impact of higher oil prices on economic growth in OPEC countries would depend on a variety of factors, particularly how the windfall revenues are spent. In the long term, however, OPEC oil revenues and GDP are likely to be lower, as higher prices would not compensate fully for lower production.
This book challenges the conventional wisdom that natural resource wealth promotes autocracy. Oil and other forms of mineral wealth can promote both authoritarianism and democracy, the book argues, but they do so through different mechanisms; an understanding of these different mechanisms can help elucidate when either the authoritarian or democratic effects of resource wealth will be relatively strong.
content decreased (Agblevor et al. 1994). The equivalents of chlorine per equivalent of alkali or
alkaline earth metals increased from 3.4 to 8.5 during this filtration. This suggests that the
residual inorganics may be present as chlorides and that much of the chlorine may be in solution.
Chloride ions in solution will have an adverse effect on corrosion of many metals, including
stainless steels such as SS304.
Compared to coal and many crude oils, biomass has a low sulfur content.
Bài giảng "Atmospheric crude column: HYSYS Oil-2 load the Oil-2 and continue" hướng dẫn các bạn các bước cột thô khí quyển HYSYS Oil-2, tải dầu,... Với các bạn chuyên ngành Hóa dầu thì đây là tài liệu tham khảo hữu ích.
Optimizer là một công cụ trong HYSYS dùng tối đa hóa hoặc tối thiểu hóa một hàm mục tiêu được nhập vào hoặc được tính toán trong spreadsheet, Optimizer được dùng để tối ưu hóa lợi nhuận thu được từ quá trình chưng cất dầu thô. Nhằm giúp các bạn hiểu hơn về vấn đề này, mời các bạn cùng tham khảo bài giảng "Optimization of crude column: HYSYS Oil-5 load the Oil-4 and continue". Hy vọng đây là tài liệu tham khảo hữu ích cho các bạn.
Essential oils (also called volatile oils) generally extracted by
distillation from plants are hydrophobic liquids containing
volatile aromatic compounds. The essential oils are widely
used in perfumes, cosmetics as well as in food and drink as
flavor additives. Some essential oils show multiple pharmacological
activities and have been considered as the major active
fractions of herbal medicines [1–3].
Petroleum refining operations can be separated into five basic areas: 1. Fractionation (distillation) is the separation of crude oil in atmospheric and vacuum distillation towers into different "fractions" or "cuts." 2. Conversion processes change the size and/or structure of hydrocarbon molecules. These processes include: − Decomposition by thermal and catalytic cracking; − Unification through alkylation and polymerization; − Alteration with isomerization and catalytic reforming. ...
CRUDE OIL DISTILLATION (FRACTIONATION)
1. Description The first step in the refining process is the separation of crude oil into various fractions or straight-run cuts by distillation in atmospheric and vacuum towers. The main fractions or "cuts" obtained can be classified in order of decreasing volatility into gases, light distillates, middle distillates, gas oils, and residuum. 2. Atmospheric Distillation Tower At the refinery, the desalted crude feedstock is preheated using recovered process heat. ...
BASICS OF CRUDE OIL
Crude oils are complex mixtures containing many different hydrocarbon compounds. An average crude oil contains about 84% carbon, 14% hydrogen, 1 ÷ 3% sulfur and less than 1% each of nitrogen, oxygen, metals and salts. Simple crude oil assays are used to classify crude oils as paraffinic, naphthenic, aromatic or mixed, based on the predominant proportion of similar hydrocarbon molecules. The comprehensive crude assays determine the value of the crude: its yield and quality of useful products.
When the first edition Chemistry of Petrochemical Processes was written, the etention was to introduce to the users a simplified approach to a diversified subject dealing with the chemistry and technology of var_ious petroleum and petrochemical process.
Many mathematical tools can be used to analyze vibrational systems. One of the first mathemat-
ical tools a neophyte engineer learns is calculus. The basics of limits, differentiation, and
integration permeate all of engineering mathematics. This chapter offers a cursory review of
these topics and uses the mathematics of vibrations to demonstrate how the concepts operate.
For more specific information on all these topics, consult relevant sections of this Handbook.
The ‘electronic book’ is a feature of this early 21st Century. I have been in academic life for
several decades, and have I hope responded with flexibility to changes over that time. I have been
using a word processor on a daily basis for twenty years and am deeply conscious of the
advantages over even the most advanced typewriters. The first time I gave a presentation using
Microsoft PowerPoint was in India about six years ago. I have with enthusiasm used PowerPoint
for every invited talk or conference contribution I have given since....