Generally the term photonic crystal refers to two dimensional (2-D) and three
dimensional (3-D) structures. Using 2-D and 3-D photonic crystals it is possible to
control the propagation of light at arbitrary angles of incidence and not only the light
normally incident as is the case for conventional optical films. Further, using photonic
crystals, it is possible to achieve optical functionality not possible using conventional
optical materials. This book provides a complete overview about photonic crystals
including properties, applications, approaches and methods for the study....
In 2009 the world celebrated 50 years of lasers, bringing to the attention of the
public how deeply lasers and laser related technologies have revolutionized both
science and everyday life. Next year will be the fiftieth anniversary of the semiconductor
laser. Used as a compact light source with high modulation rates, it
transformed telecommunications in combination with glass fibers. Today laser
diodes are omnipresent in data storage and communication. Still, most of these
applications are based on infrared or red laser diodes.
The nano-scale spatial organization of metallic and other inorganic materi-als into 1D objects is a key task in nanotechnology. Nano-scale fibers and
tubes are very useful templates for such organization because of their
inherent 1D organization. Fibrillar biological molecules and biomolecular
assemblies are excellent physical supports on which to organize the inor-ganic material.
We used generalized two-dimensional NMR–NMR correlation to examine
the effect of potassium ions on the conformation transition in silk fibroin
to investigate the possibility that the fairly high K
ion content found in
the distal end of silk-secreting ducts in the silkworms could have a bearing
on natural formation of the silk fiber.
The eye lens is composed of fiber cells that differentiate from epithelial cells
on its anterior surface. In concert with this differentiation, a set of proteins
essential for lens function is synthesized, and the cellular organelles are
Nociceptors are specialized nerve fibers that transmit noxious pain stimuli
to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. A subset of nociceptors, the nonpepti-dergic C-fibers, is characterized by its reactivity for the plant isolectin B4
(IB4) from Griffonia simplicifolia. The molecular nature of the IB4-reactive
glycoconjugate, although used as a neuroanatomical marker for more than
a decade, has remained unknown.
mice lacke-subunits of the acetylcholine receptor and thus fail
to express adult-type receptors. The expression of fetal-type receptors
throughout postnatal life alters postsynaptic signal transduction and causes
a fast-to-slow fiber type transition, both in slow-twitch soleus muscle and
in fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle.
Gazing into the future may be possible for the few clairvoyants living among us,
but building a telecommunication network based on psychic prediction would be
like basing critical business decisions on a coin flip. Still, today’s telecommunication
buzzword for any fiber-to-the-premise (FTTP) network is “future-proofing.”
Without a crystal ball to examine future bandwidth needs and determine winning
technologies, service providers face some major challenges in getting it right the