is older than culture, for culture, however inadequately
defined, always presupposes human society, and animals have not
waited for man to teach them their playing. We can safely assert,
even, that human civilization has added no essential feature to
the general idea of play. Animals play just like men. We have
only to watch young dogs to see that all the essentials of human
play are present in their merry gambols. They invite one another
to play by a certain ceremoniousness of attitude and gesture. They
keep to the rule that you shall not bite, or not bite hard, your
The phenomenon of globalization has captured the popular imagination in
the last decade or so. This is reflected in numerous books published on this
topic from various academic disciplines and across philosophical discourses.
In discussing the various facets of globalization, almost all discourses consider
the role of business and/or multinational corporations to be very salient
in either enhancing this phenomenon or managing the process of globalization.
The aim of this book of essays is to advance contemporary work in creating
stronger links between the history and philosophy of mathematics. It has
become clear through several conferences and publications that the present situation
at the beginning of the twenty-first century is congenial to this kind of
historico-philosophical enterprise. The editors have brought together an important
international group of scholars whose contributions focus on the history and
philosophy of modern mathematics, roughly from 1800 to 1970....
By being lumped together with theories that superﬁcially resemble it,
TSC has mistakenly been criticised for reductionism. For instance, theories
that focus on the role of perception for creating and experiencing art tend to
do so at the expense of isolating artist, artwork, and viewer from their social,
ideological, and historical settings (Dengerink Chaplin 2005). Thereby facts
about how the historical context shapes perceptual experience are ignored
that are vital for understanding art in symbolic terms, as a social and cultural
In The Varieties of Religious Experience the late Professor William James has said (p. 465): 'The religious
phenomenon, studied as an inner fact, and apart from ecclesiastical or theological complications, has shown
itself to consist everywhere, and at all its stages, in the consciousness which individuals have of an intercourse
between themselves and higher powers with which they feel themselves to be related. This intercourse is
realised at the time as being both active and mutual.
To stress the salience and urgency of the national situation
as dictated by contemporary terrorism and to
underscore the need for behavioral and social science
understandings of that situation are to pronounce the
self-evident. Terrorism, already recognized by some as the
looming form of international conflict in the late twentieth century,
moved dramatically to center stage on September 11, 2001,
and promises to occupy national attention for decades.
The loss of the rational in Western societies can be identified
as part of a larger cultural trend that makes such societies
more vulnerable, and it has many symptoms ranging from the
innocuous to the fanatical. The cult of celebrity, focused on
pop artists and athletes, is a more innocent symptom of this
wider cultural phenomenon. In some Western societies, faith
in purely irrational belief systems has overtaken belief in reli-
gions that have moral and rational substance, as well as cul-
Sustainable tourism, sustainable development through tourism, principles of sustainable
development in tourism and tourism development in terms of sustainable tourism, in the
literature often treated as names for the same phenomenon, are becoming increasingly
interesting for scholars and practicians of tourism from various countries.
Color plays an essential role in our day-to-day lives. From birth we are taught to react to colors logically or emotionally. Colors have meaning, which vary from culture to culture and continent to continent. It governs and controls traffic, triggers strong emotions, and is used to describe moods. Light, perceived by the human eye, is the product of electromagnetic waves in a small range of wavelengths. Different wavelengths are perceived as different colors.
This collection of essays seeks to explore the vernacular dialogues and contested identities that shaped a complex cultural and architectural phenomenon like Mediterranean modernism. The authors bring to light the debt twentiethcentury modernist architects owe to the vernacular building traditions of the Mediterranean region, a geographical area that touches three continents – Europe, Africa and Asia. This book is subdivided into two sections of essays by an international group of scholars who adopt a number of different methodological perspectives.
The confluence of two seemingly unconnected and important
aspects of collegiate culture combine to create an interesting
phenomenon: the distribution of financial aid for athletic ability
by a huge majority of America’s colleges. Soon after athletic
competitions between schools began, it became clear that the
student bodies of the schools took the contests quite seriously
and they preferred winning as opposed to losing, no matter
how much sportsmanship the athletes on the fields of competition
The Science of Animal Agriculture is directed toward teaching the
basic science concepts involved in the production of agricultural
animals. This newly revised edition contains the latest up-to-date
information regarding the scientifi c aspect of the agricultural
industry. All facets of modern agriculture are based on science.
From the most rudimentary cultural practices to the most complicated
biotechnology techniques, scientifi c research has produced
the phenomenon known as American agriculture....
We are confronted with the problems of globalisation daily. Globalisation has become
a common phenomenon, yet one that many people experience as a threat not only to
their economic existence, but also to their cultural and moral self-image. Some join
protest organisations like ATTAC and others. Their protests regularly lead to violence
at international summits. Moreover, the current situation after September 11th can
be seen as an indirect consequence of problems associated with globalisation.
In many parts of the world, where medicines are not readily available
or affordable, the public continue to rely on medicines used traditionally
in their cultures. At the same time, affluent consumers in the industrialized
world are spending their own money on healthcare approaches
that fall outside what has been considered mainstream medicine. A growing
body of national and international studies highlight the reality that
there is exponential growth of global interest in and use of traditional (i.e.
indigenous), complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM).
With regard to the ‘cause’ of this phenomenon, several explanations have been offered,
including improvement in chemical restraints available for large animals, the elimination of
gender-based admission discrimination and the generally caring portrayal of veterinarians
in both the literature and on television (Lofstedt, 2003:534).
Transnational flows of people, financial resources, goods, information and culture have
recently been increasing in a drastic way and have profoundly transformed the world
(Ritzer and Malone, 2001). This phenomenon has been labeled globalization. As a result, a
great deal of debate and discussion, even controversy (Bird and Stevens, 2003) has taken
place about globalization in various disciplines from different angles. In fact, there seems to
be a controversy in regards to globalization and the contradictory meanings associated with
By the year of this Oscar montage, 1990, the cultures of home video viewing and
movie taping had taken hold, and while the widespread development of the domestic
cinephile would await the phenomenon of DVD collecting as characterized by Barbara
Klinger, the accumulative spectatorial pleasures of the Workman montages foretell the
dynamic of the contemporary movie collector. According to Klinger this is “a dynamic
that occludes the relations the collection has to the outside world, particularly to the
social and material conditions of mass production.
Sexual harassment offline is a well-known, highly prevalent, extensively investigated, and intensively
treated social problem. An accepted model classifies sexual harassment behaviors into the categories
of gender harassment, unwanted sexual attention, and sexual coercion. Theory and research show that
sexual harassment behavior occurs as a product of person × situation characteristics and has substantial
personal and organizational costs.
The rise of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) – a whole array
of practices, products and approaches to health and illness1 – can certainly no
longer be characterised as cultural fad or fashion. Changes in the use of titles
(from ‘unscientific’ and ‘marginal’ to ‘complementary’ and ‘integrative’)
reflect a more substantive relocation and transformation of many of these
medicines from the fringe to the mainstream of both community and professional
health-care discourse and practice (Tovey et al. 2004).
The Internet is a remarkable phenomenon. Essentially, it is just a large number of computers connected together in
such a way that communication between them is both reliable and fast. Phrased in this way, it is wholly unremarkable.
But the Internet is also the people who use it, to communicate and to share information, even to build relationships
and communities. It's a culture that has grown within a virtual space, and that has permeated many aspects of our