Cumulative environmental

Xem 1-10 trên 10 kết quả Cumulative environmental
  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), also called dioxin, is among the most toxic anthropogenic substance ever identified. TCDD and a number of similar polychlorinated dioxins, dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (dioxin-like compounds [DLCs]) have been the subject of intense scientific research and frequently controversial environmental and health policies.

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  • A notable achievement by the U.S. Army as of early 2012 is that 90 percent of the legacy chemical weapons and other chemical warfare materiel (CWM) from the Second World War and cold war eras and then stockpiled by the United States have been safely destroyed. 1 Whatever cumulative risk had been posed by the existence of this CWM to communi-ties surrounding the six military sites where it was guarded and safely maintained since the mid-twentieth century is now zero.

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  • Both human activities and natural activities can change the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of water, and will have specific ramifications for human and ecosystem health. Water quality is affected by changes in nutrients, sedimentation, temperature, pH, heavy metals, non-metallic toxins, persistent organics and pesticides, and biological factors, among many other factors (Carr and Neary 2008). Following are brief discussions of these major contaminants.

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  • Although the evidence base on social inequalities and environmental risk is fragmented and data are often available for few countries only, it indicates that inequalities are a major challenge for environmental health policies. The review confirms that people living in adverse socioeconomic conditions in Europe can suffer twice as much from multiple and cumulative environmental exposures as their wealthier neighbours, or even more.

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  • SECTION I ECOLOGY OF INDIVIDUAL INSECTS THE INDIVIDUAL ORGANISM IS A FUNDAMENTAL unit of ecology. Organisms interact with their environment and affect ecosystem processes largely through their cumulative physiological and behavioral responses to environmental variation. Individual success in finding and using necessary habitats and resources to gain reproductive advantage determines fitness.

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  • The second domain, environmental pollutants, encompasses exposures that might bring about chronic conditions or exacerbate these conditions. We include in this domain air, water, and other toxic pollutants. For example, repeated exposure to toxic waste sites may result in malignancies later in life (American Cancer Society, 2002), which in turn may lead to functional decline (Teno et al., 2001; Michael et al., 2000). Thus, exposure to water contamination or toxic wastes is likely to affect health status, particularly though cumulated effects in the lifecourse.

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  • The government is taking the lead by developing a management plan for the northeast region of Alberta. This plan will look beyond oil sands development on a project-by-project basis by addressing the cumulative effects of development. This approach enables responsible resource development that incorporates creative and innovative solutions to secure economic prosperity, while maintaining the province’s commitment to environmental protection and stewardship.

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  • Environmental statements should consider the direct and cumulative impacts of proposed offshoreinstallations,both within the turbine array and on the wider seabed environment.This should include the construction of turbines and meteorological mastsand their foundations;scour protection;burial andarmouring of cables on the site and connection to the shore;and potential hydrological or sedimenttransport effects.The impact assessment of associatedconstruction works should include onshore,inter-tidaland offshore works,as sensitive archaeological sitesmay occur in all these locations.

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  • Later in this article (Sections 7 and 8) I present an outline of thisworkwhen seen through one particular lens, namely reproductive and environmental externalities, laying stress on the arguments that have shaped it and on the policy recommendations that have emerged from it. The framework I develop focuses on the vast numbers of small, rural communities in the poorest regions of the world and identifies circumstances in which population growth, poverty, and resource degradation can be expected to feed on one another, cumulatively, over periods of time.

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  • Every week there is a new virus, or a financial collapse, a catastrophic hurricane or a drastic increase in food shortages, and the ramifications that follow rumble on through days and months, sometimes years, brushing by some people and hitting others square on. Climate change and rapid population growth – a potent, foreboding pair – are already delivering blows that are sudden and staggering; they are also causing cumulative, damaging environmental change that makes people’s everyday lives increasingly difficult.

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