Current and frequency

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  • After four centuries a quote from Galileo Galilei is still the most effective way to introduce a Metrology book: “Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so”. Every human activity needs an objective measurement and every global process should be supported by a common standard. There are several handbooks, tutorials and journals that focus on the basic concepts of metrology, the uncertainty theory and the international reference standards. Moreover, the engineering literature is awash with measurement methods for each specific field.

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  • Grammar: Chapter 5: The present continuous. Activities in progress: A. Use the present continuous for activities that are in progress (or happening) at the exact moment the speaker is talking. You can use time expressions such as now or right now to emphasize that an action is happening currently (and may end soon). For example: 1. Look! It is snowing. 2. She’s making dinner now. 3. Steve can’t come to the phone right now. He’s taking a bath.

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  • History of the Present Illness: Duration of chest pain. Location, radiation (to arm, jaw, back), character (squeezing, sharp, dull), intensity, rate of onset (gradual or sudden); relationship of pain to activity (at rest, during sleep, during exercise); relief by nitroglycerine; increase in frequency or severity of baseline anginal pattern. Improvement or worsening of pain. Past episodes of chest pain. Age of onset of angina.

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  • Multi-carrier modulation, in particular Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), has been successfully applied to a wide variety of digital communications applications over the past several years. Although OFDM has been chosen as the physical layer standard for a diversity of important systems, the theory, algorithms, and implementation techniques remain subjects of current interest. This is clear from the high volume of papers appearing in technical journals and conferences.

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  • In a normal alternating current power system, the voltage varies sinusoidally at a specific frequency, usually 50 or 60 hertz. When a linear electrical load is connected to the system, it draws a sinusoidal current at the same frequency as the voltage (though usually not in phase with the voltage). When a non-linear load, such as a rectifier, is connected to the system, it draws a current that is not necessarily sinusoidal. The current waveform can become quite complex, depending on the type of load and its interaction with other components of the system.

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  • Our intention in writing MRI: Basic Principles and Applications was to provide a book that would serve as a bridge between the theory and practical usage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We minimized the use of intense mathematical formalism and attempted to show the underlying foundation for MRI as it is currently used. Our attempt was to provide a resource for those medical personnel who needed accurate and detailed information yet could not devote time to study an in-depth theoretical treatise....

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  • The information compiled in this report reflects evidence collected from WHP policies in high-income countries, primarily within the European and North American regions. The scarcity of information and case studies from low- and middle-income countries was highlighted as an important gap in the current knowledge that needs to be addressed. Despite the limits of the available evidence, all stakeholders are encouraged to develop and implement WHP policies and programmes tackling unhealthy diets and physical inactivity....

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  • Risk management has attracted increased attention in recent years. Many advisers have recently reevaluated, or are currently reevaluating, their organizational structures and other practices relating to risk management. In many cases, they are adopting more formal risk management practices. Fund boards also have been reevaluating their risk management oversight practices, including the structures and mandates of board committees and the format and frequency of board reports. Practices in the industry continue to evolve. ...

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  • We study weekly portfolio returns from 23 developed markets. We choose to study returns at a weekly frequency to avoid the problems caused by nonsyn- chronous trading around the world at higher frequencies. All returns are U.S. dollar denominated, and we calculate excess returns by subtracting the U.S. weekly T-bill rate, which is obtained from the Center for Research in Security Prices (CRSP) riskfree file. 1 Our selection of developed countries matches the countries currently in the Morgan Stanley Developed Country Index. Data for the United States are from Compustat and CRSP.

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  • Second, the model is consistent with multifactor volatility models or CGARCH e¤ects. Both endowment risk and sentiment risk are associated with instantaneous shocks associated with the idiosyncratic risk embedded in the Brownian motions present in the investors endowments. In contrast, solvency risk is associated with the binding of solvency constraints, and therefore it occurs at a lower frequency.

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  • Just as you usually use a pound or so of apples to bake your average pie or several tons of steel to build a suburban office park, in electronics, some things just naturally come in small measurements and others in large measurements. That means that you typically see certain combinations of prefixes and units over and over. Here are some common combinations of notations for prefixes and units: Current: pA, nA, mA, µA, A Inductance: nH, mH, µH, H Capacitance: pF, nF, mF, F Voltage: mV, V, kV Resistance: Ω, kΩ, MΩ Frequency: Hz, kHz, MHz, GHz Exploring some new terms Although...

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  • This chapter discusses sinusoidal steady state power calculations. Numerical integration is used to obtain the rms value, average power and quadrature power. Three-phase circuits are analyzed by converting the circuits into the frequency domain and by using the Kirchoff voltage and current laws. The unknown voltages and currents are solved using matrix techniques. Given a network function or transfer function, MATLAB has functions that can be used to (i) obtain the poles and zeros, (ii) perform partial fraction expansion, and (iii) evaluate the transfer function at specific frequencies.

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  • Reoffering yield In a purchase and sale, the yield to maturity at which the underwriter offers to sell the bonds to investors. Reopen an issue The Treasury, when it wants to sell additional securities, will occasionally sell more of an existing issue (reopen it) rather than offer a new issue. Reorganization Creating a plan to restructure a debtor's business and restore its financial health. Replacement cost Cost to replace a firm's assets. Replacement cycle The frequency with which an asset is replaced by an equivalent asset. Replacement value Current cost of replacing the firm's assets.

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  • Otosclerosis is one of the most fascinating diseases in the field of otology. Its familial or spontaneous occurrence, its histological appearance, its clinically sex-dependent frequency with female predominance, its still mysterious etiology and the intellectual challenges it poses as well as the aesthetics involved in its surgical treatment make otosclerosis a subject for continuous clinical research.

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  • Advanced General-purpose Inverters SYSDRIVE RX Series Digital Operator Used to set parameters, perform various monitoring, and start and stop the Inverter. Nomenclature and Functions ■ Inverter Nomenclature and Functions Data Display Displays relevant data, such as frequency reference, output current, and set values. Terminal block Cover Remove this cover when wiring the terminal block.

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  • C Algorithms for Real-Time DSP, by Paul Embree, is a stimulating book. When I finished reading it, I went straight to my workstation and started experimenting with DSP algorithms. Embree clearly knows this subject and presents it in a straightforward manner. This is a refreshing change from the academic approach taken by the seven digital-signal processing books currently on my bookshelf. Not that Embree doesn't reference some heavy math. C Algorithms for Real-Time DSP is not for the mathematically weak of heart.

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  • Getting Started in Electronics plant, the direction in which the electrons flow changes 120 times a second, making a complete turnaround 60 times a second. This change in electron flow is called alternating current, or AC. When the change in electron flow makes a complete loop, it’s called a cycle. The number of cycles per second in alternating current is measured in Hertz, abbreviated Hz. The example of a cycle in the previous paragraph is based on the fact that the United States uses a 60 Hertz standard frequency; some other countries use 50 Hertz as a standard, which means that...

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  • These power ratings and currents are given for an ambient temperature of 50°C (122°F) at the factory-set switching frequency, used in continuous operation (factory-set switching frequency of 4 kHz for ATV71H 037M3 to D15M3X and 2.5 kHz for ATV71H D18M3X to D45M3X). Above this factory setting, the drive will reduce the switching frequency automatically in the event of excessive temperature rise. For continuous operation above the factory setting, derating must be applied to the nominal drive current in accordance with the curves on page 14.

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  • The speed of the rotating magnetic field 2πf1 ωsyn = P/2 60f1 nsyn = P/2 (rad/s) (rev/min) or where f1 is the frequency of the stator current, and P the number of poles. 2. The rotor speed of an induction machine is generally different from the speed of the rotating magnetic field. The percentage difference of speed, known as slip, is defined as s= ωsyn-ωm nsyn-n = n ωsyn syn where ωm and n are the speed of the rotor in rad/s and rev/min, respectively. 3. The induced emf in one phase of the stator winding is E1 = 4.44f1N1kw1Φm and...

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  • Radio‐frequency identification (RFID) is a technology that uses communication through radio waves to transfer data between a reader and an electronic tag attached to an entity for the purpose of identification, tracking and surveillance. Unlike other identification technologies such as barcodes, RFID technology offers several key benefits such as no line‐of‐sight necessity, robustness, speed, bidirectional communication, reliability in tough environments, bulk detection, superior data capabilities, etc....

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