Current application of the ecosystem

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  • The variety of macrofauna in limnetic and estuarine ecosystems is related to the spatial arrangement of habitats with different quantitative and qualitative complexities (Heck & Crowder, 1991; Taniguchi et al., 2003; Genkai-Kato, 2007; Gullström et al., 2008). Among these habitats, submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), harbour a high diversity of molluscs, macrocrustaceans and fish, by favouring a greater survival and growth of the associated populations (Minello & Zimmerman, 1991; Pelicice & Agostinho, 2006; Rozas & Minello, 2006; Cetra & Petrere, 2007; Genkai-Kato, 2007; Hansen et al.

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  • England’s fisheries in 1871, Congress created the U.S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries (Hobart 1995). The first appointed Commissioner, Spencer Baird, initiated marine ecological studies as one of his first priorities. According to Baird, our understanding of fish “... would not be complete without a thorough knowledge of their associates in the sea, especially of such as prey upon them or constitute their food....” He understood that the presence or absence of fish was related not only to removal by fishing, but also to the dynamics of physical and chemical oceanography.

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  • Emission inventories play a dual role in global air pollution issues. Firstly, they can be used directly to establish the more important source categories, to identify trends in emissions and to examine the impact of different policy approaches. Secondly, emission inventories are used to drive atmospheric models applied to assess the environmental consequences of changing trace gas emissions and concentrations and to provide advice to policy makers. This second role contributes to the atmospheric modelling community being an important user of emission inventories.

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  • An Ecosystem Approach provides a modern perspective of insect ecology that integrates two approaches traditionally used to study insect ecology: evolutionary and ecosystem. This integration substantially broadens the scope of insect ecology and contributes to prediction and resolution of the effects of current environmental changes, as these affect and are affected by insects. The third edition includes an updated and expanded synthesis of feedback and interactions between insects and their environment.

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  • Biofertilisers are defined in this application as microbial inoculants, isolated from soil or the rhizosphere of plants, assisting the mobilisation of soil nutrients such as N and P and others in the plant rhizosphere and thus promoting the growth rate and yield of plants. Successful biofertilisers can contribute to increases in food production in a highly sustainable manner, with economic and environmental advantages.

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