Since the CDM was defined at COP3 in Kyoto 1997, it took the international
community another 4 years to reach the Marrakech Accords in which the modalities and procedures to implement the CDM was elaborated. Since the second edition of this guidebook published in June 2004 the CDM has developed very rapidly. This third edition of the guidebook is featuring recent developments within the CDM.
This guidebook is designed to help readers navigate the pitfalls of preparing a Project Design
Document (PDD) for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. This second edition also
aims at helping project developers to navigate the pitfalls of preparing a Monitoring Report
and be better prepared to face the verification process.
The purpose of a PDD is to prepare project information for relevant stakeholders.
The CDM market has witnessed dramatic progress in the past few months, with more than
1,700 projects in the pipeline by March 2007. However, CDM project development still faces
barriers that prevent a much larger potential expansion in the number of CDM projects worldwide.
Many project developers identify lack of access to financing as one of the key reasons why
numerous CDM project concepts never materialise. This has been the case especially for Africa
and for other parts of the developing world.
The state of the national economy has a profound effect on career interests and the choices
of prospective job seekers. This is reflected in part by the variation in the number of people
seeking admission to vocational schools, colleges, universities, and professional schools at
different periods in time. The variable economic cycle also influences, to some extent, those
considering health-care careers. Nevertheless, the aging population has greatly increased
the demand for professionals and paraprofessionals in the health-care field.
The findings, opinions, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this guidebook are entirely those
of the authors and should not be attributed in any manner to the United Nations Environment Program
(UNEP), UNEP Risoe Center, Technical University of Denmark, or Baker & McKenzie. This report is
intended as a public resource for stakeholders undertaking activities that reduce greenhouse gas
emissions, whether under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism or other market-based
instruments for carbon trading.
Chapter 8 - Developing marketing strategies. After studying the material in this chapter, you should be able to: Describe the marketing concept and explain how it can be used by a small business, show how marketing research can be used to implement the marketing concept, explain how to develop and implement a marketing strategy, explain how the product life cycle affects marketing strategies, explain how packaging affects marketing, describe how prices are set and administered, show how marketing services differs from marketing goods.