The vast majority of published cytogenetic studies of malignancy
have been of leukemias and related hematologic disorders (see Fig. 1),
even though these constitute only about 20% of all cancers. It follows
that most of what is known about the clinical applications of
cytogenetic studies has been derived from hematologic malignancies.
In this paper, we first give an overview of the characterization techniques commonly used to
follow surface and structural modification of CNTs upon chemical treatments; the
respective sensitivity and the limits of each technique are also briefly discussed.
Applications of FISH
The majority of FISH applications involve hybridization of one or two probes of interest as an adjunctive procedure to conventional chromosomal banding techniques. In this regard, FISH can be utilized to identify specific chromosomes, characterize de novo duplications or deletions, and clarify subtle chromosomal rearrangements. Its greatest utilization, however, is in the detection of microdeletions (see below). Though conventional cytogenetic studies can detect some microdeletions, initial detection and/or confirmation with FISH is essential.
The speciality of medical genetics is concerned with the study
of human biological variation and its relationship to health and
disease. It encompasses mechanisms of inheritance,
cytogenetics, molecular genetics and biochemical genetics as
well as formal, statistical and population genetics. Clinical
genetics is the branch of the specialty involved with the
diagnosis and management of genetic disorders affecting
individuals and their families.
Further development of banding techniques and study
of prometaphase chromosomes facilitated better identification of these variations with
high resolution. Culturing of free amniocytes was another breakthrough that allowed
the identification of chromosomal abnormalities associated with birth defects. These
classical cytogenetic techniques became mandatory for several clinical conditions and
were adopted by many laboratories as a routine.
The relative biological effectiveness of radiations of different quality
is examined in detail in this report. The analyses were performed
by Scientific Committee 40 of the NCRP which is charged with the
responsibility for analysis and evaluation of radiobiological data
relevant to radiation protection recommendations.
This report is a follow-on to the previous report of Scientific Committee
40 on its evaluation of the effects of dose rate which was
published in 1980 as NCRP Report No.
Cytogenetic Testing in Prenatal Diagnosis
The vast majority of prenatal diagnostic studies are performed to rule out a chromosomal abnormality, but cells may also be propagated for biochemical studies or molecular analyses of DNA. Three procedures are used to obtain samples for prenatal diagnosis: amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS), and fetal blood sampling. Amniocentesis is the most common procedure and is routinely performed at 15–17 weeks of gestation.
BCR/ABL transcript levels have served as early predictors for hematologic relapse following transplantation. These should facilitate risk-adapted approaches with immunosuppression or TK inhibitor(s), or a combination of the two. Donor leukocyte infusions (without any preparative chemotherapy or GVHD
prophylaxis) can induce hematologic and cytogenetic remissions in patients with CML who have relapsed after allogeneic SCT.