Cytology laboratory

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  • Those of us involved in the healthcare of women have seen a remarkable transformation in screening techniques for cervical cancer and its precursors since the mid 1990s.  The staid old Pap smear technique of scraping cells from the cervix with a wooden spatula and cotton-tipped applicator and smearing them onto a glass slide is a thing of the past in most practices. We now use plastic collection devices to transfer cells from the cervix into a preservative which is sent to the lab for liquidbased cytology and reflex human papillomavirus (HPV) testing.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Does pleural fluid appearance really matter? The relationship between fluid appearance and cytology, cell counts, and chemical laboratory ...

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  • The Nongynecological Cytology Practice Guideline is a document for laboratories and is intended for use primarily by cytologists – pathologists and cytotechnologists – who perform non- gynecologic cytology analyses and report their findings to clinicians. It is not intended to represent the standard of care for use in medico legal proceedings. Thus, this document focuses on laboratory processes and related topics such as techniques of sample procurement, slide staining and analysis, and cytology laboratory management.

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  • The use of a reference standard consisting of colposcopy and directed biopsy served two purposes. The treatment decision was supposed to be based on colposcopic impression (with lab results coming later to identify any cancers that might have been missed) to reduce the number of visits and the loss to follow-up care. However, district hospital staff usually preferred to wait for the biopsy result to come back before offering treatment. Second, the use of colposcopy allowed comparison to conventional cytology and the evaluation of the proposed triage methods: VIA, VILI, and VIAM.

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  • When starting a cervical cancer prevention and control programme, cytology-based screening is not advisable, as sensitivity of this methodology is low and health systems requirements to ensure good quality and adequate coverage are high. If appropriate, a combination of different screening modalities followed by treatment may be used depending on the geographical area, infrastructure and human resource capacity in the country.

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  • Fine-Needle Aspiration Cytology/ Biopsy (FNAC/FNAB) is now a widely accepted diagnostic procedure, which has largely replaced open biopsy. This method is applicable to lesions that are easily palpable, for example swellings in Thyroid, Breast, superficial Lymph node etc. Imaging techniques, mainly ultra-sonography and computed tomography, offer an opportunity for guided FNAC of deeper structures. The practice of diagnostic cytology needs proper training of the laboratory personnel including cytopathologist, cytotechnologist and cytotechnician.

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  • The accuracy of the cytologic examination from any body site depends greatly on the quality of collection, preparation, staining and interpretation of the material. Inadequacy in any of these steps will adversely affect the quality of diagnostic cytology. Diagnostic accuracy and reliability are major issues in cytology practice.

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  • The emphasis of this guideline is on nongynecological cytology specimen procurement, analysis, reporting and management. Specific microscopic criteria for interpretation are not included since these are well described in textbooks, symposia and workshops. A detailed analysis of related clinical topics such as patient care algorithms for follow up of abnormal nongynecological cytology results are also beyond the scope of this document.

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  • Nongynecological cytology specimens are collected from a variety of sites for the detection of malignant and benign processes. The site from which the sample is collected dictates the method of collection. The method of collection affects the morphology of the cellular samples. The importance of proper specimen collection and submission is essential. Clinical personnel should be trained in the appropriate submission of samples as well as in procedural techniques. The laboratory must provide instructions for proper collection of all nongynecological specimens.

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