dairy industries

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  • This text is written to all chemical engineering students who are participating in courses about membrane processes and membrane technology.

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  • The purpose of the Industrial Sector Guides for Cleaner ProductionAssessment is to raise awareness of the environmental impacts associatedwith industrial and manufacturing processes, and to highlight theapproaches that industry and government can take to avoid or minimisethese impacts by adopting a Cleaner Production approach.

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  • Hence, there is an imperative need to re-engineer Pakistan’s dairy industry; both at farm and processor level. This paper seeks to investigate the tools that could bring about such change. We believe achieving the strategic change outlined in this paper for the dairy industry may prove challenging for at least some sectors.

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  • Knowledge in dairying, like all other technical industries, has grown mainly out of experience. Many facts have been learned by observation, but the why of each is frequently shrouded in mystery. Modern dairying is attempting to build its more accurate knowledge upon a broader and surer foundation, and in doing this is seeking to ascertain the cause of wellestablished processes. In this, bacteriology is playing an important rôle. Indeed, it may be safely predicted that future progress in dairying will, to a large extent, depend upon bacteriological research.

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  • Even before the 1890s depression, some dairymen who had prospered in the southern part of the (then) colony of NSW, had begun to move to the wilderness area between the Richmond River (which ran through Lismore) and the Tweed River (which ran through Murwillumbah). In the 1890s both the government of George Dibbs (which held office until 1894) and the government of George Reid (which followed) saw an emphasis on dairying as a partial remedy for the 1890s depression.

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  • Success in dairy farming depends largely upon the proper feeding of stock. There are two questions that the dairy farmer should always ask himself: Am I feeding as cheaply as I can? and, Am I feeding the best rations for milk and butter production? Of course cows can be kept alive and in fairly good milk flow on many different kinds of food, but in feeding, as in everything else, there is an ideal to be sought. What, then, is an ideal ration for a dairy cow? Before trying to answer this question the word ration needs to be...

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  • It is accepted globally that a “leaner” yet ‘bigger’ dairy industry is much more productive than small farm holdings. Contrary to this belief we suggest mechanization is not an alternative but can be a complement to smallholding farms. Mechanization is understood as loss of jobs for farmers. This may be true for the crop sector; however, in dairy farming this is not always the case. Given Pakistan’s spread of smallholdings and very low level of existing mechanization; job losses are unlikely to happen.

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  • While the structure of the dairy processing industry has improved dramatically, milk collection and distribution is fragmented compared to systems found in other countries. There is a need to improve the supply chain from farmer to consumer in Pakistan. There is very limited data available on the routes to market or the distribution channels employed in Pakistan. Most of the milk produced in the farms is consumed at the household level.

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  • Being a highly perishable commodity and produced primarily in the heart of the rural environment, milk reaches the consumer only with much difficulty and increased cost. Urban usage of milk is only 30% with the formal milk processing industry handling only 2 to 3 % (around 1 billion liters) of total milk production of the country. For the other 97%, a multi-layered distribution system of middlemen has evolved for milk supply.

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  • Overall welfare effects are slightly positive for the EU-27. Whereas total agricultural income would decline due to lower milk prices on average, the EU dairy industry would benefit as prices of dairy products are expected to decline less than raw milk prices (i.e. input costs decreasing more than revenues). Impacts on the FEOGA budget would arise mainly from additional export subsidies for butter and moderate losses of tariff revenues.

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  • Successful dairy cow management requires matching the quality and supply of feed with the cow‟s nutritional requirements as efficiently and profitably as possible. Therefore, it is vital that dairy farmers become increasingly proactive in minimising the uncertainties in pasture growth and availability and become more focused on producing forages that can be preserved and utilised when pasture is not readily available.

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  • The role of “mechanization” also needs consideration. Firstly, the asset base of farms must be appropriate to their needs – over capitalization will result in unprofitable farming. Secondly, it should be emphasised that the issue is management, and that mechanization is necessary to support modern management, no more and no less. A developed dairy industry including mechanised farms can create eight types of different entrepreneurs in the village.

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  • This brings us to the most complicated issue of Pakistan’s Dairy supply chain namely; achieving a “Level Playing Field” between the middlemen Dhodhis and the processors. At present, middlemen play a critical role in the Pakistan dairy industry: Without them, a far smaller proportion of milk would find its way from the farmer to the consumer. To varying extents, processors rely on dhodhis collecting milk and transporting it to collection centers. It is well known that adulteration of milk occurs in Pakistan on a broad scale.

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  • There is a need to improve current practices in Asia with regard to selection of cattle for breeding purposes, for both dairy and beef production. For many years, most of the countries in the region have been importing cows, bulls, and semen, largely from the temperate regions of the world, and using them to ‘upgrade’ the genetics of their existing herds of indigenous cattle for producing ability. However, and based on current evaluation of production levels and the productivity of cattle and buffalo, some doubts exist regarding the need and wisdom to continue this practice.

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  • Lipases find promising applications in organic chemical processing, detergent formula- tions, synthesis of biosurfactants, the oleochemical industry, the dairy industry, the agro- chemical industry, paper manufacture, nutrition, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical processing. Development of lipase-based technologies for the synthesis of novel compounds is rapidly expanding the uses of these enzymes (Liese et al., 2000). One limiting factor is a shortage of lipases having the specific required processing characteristics.

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  • Organic milk producers usually begin as operators of conventional dairies that go through what can be a challenging and costly transition process. Many changes in such areas as animal husbandry, land and crop management, sourcing new and different inputs, and initiation of the certification process, among others, are required during transition. For example, the pasture and cropland providing feed for organic dairies must be managed organically for a minimum of 36 months before it can be certified.

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  • Institutional capacity is critical to the ability of Dairy Pakistan to lead development of the dairy industry as described in this paper. It must be recognized, however, that Dairy Pakistan can only build its resources at a rate consistent with available funding and with projects agreed to be supported by funding providers. It is the intention of Dairy Pakistan to utilize the greatest possible proportion of the available funding in its early years on actual development programs rather than on its own structure.

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  • The increase in cow milk production in the EU-27 is mainly due to a 4.2% increase in dairy cow herds. At MS level, increases in dairy herds between 11% and 20% are projected for the Netherlands, Austria, Belgium, Ireland and Spain. Concerning the NMS, the biggest increases in dairy cow herds are projected for Hungary (6.1%) and Poland (4.5%).

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  • The risk of breast cancer is affected by lifestyle. Obesity is associated with a two-fold increase in risk among post-menopausal women; this has been linked with high intake of meat and dairy fat, but the precise nature of these relationships are still unclear. Regular alcohol consumption (two or more drinks per day) increases risk by about 40%. As with many other forms of cancer, eating more vegetables can reduce risk.

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  • Plastics have evolved to be a very useful material. Today, plastics are used in almost every area, from small bottle caps, disposable cutlery, and packages for dairy products, to large containers, such as laundry baskets and garbage pails. Plastics have transitioned from a “cheap” substitute for metal and glass to the material of choice providing almost unlimited design freedom, unique properties, and significant cost savings. Figure 2.1 shows various industrial containers and house wares that create durable products in cycles from 10–30 seconds....

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