Before we describe the investigation process, we need to deﬁne the basic and fundamental concepts.
There are few agreed upon deﬁnitions in the area of digital forensic research, so we will clearly
state the deﬁnitions we are using, even the most basic ones. Digital data are data represented in a
numerical form. With modern computers, it is common for the data to be internally represented in
a binary encoding, but this is not a requirement. A digital object is a discrete collection of digital
data, such as a ﬁle, a hard disk sector, a network packet, a memory page, or a process....