Until very recently, most NLP tasks (e.g., parsing, tagging, etc.) have been conﬁned to a very limited number of languages, the so-called majority languages. Now, as the ﬁeld moves into the era of developing tools for Resource Poor Languages (RPLs)—a vast majority of the world’s 7,000 languages are resource poor—the discipline is confronted not only with the algorithmic challenges of limited data, but also the sheer difﬁculty of locating data in the ﬁrst place.
As the arm of NLP technologies extends beyond a small core of languages, techniques for working with instances of language data across hundreds to thousands of languages may require revisiting and recalibrating the tried and true methods that are used. Of the NLP techniques that has been treated as “solved” is language identiﬁcation (language ID) of written text. However, we argue that language ID is far from solved when one considers input spanning not dozens of languages, but rather hundreds to thousands, a number that one approaches when harvesting language data found on the Web.
Mining bilingual data (including bilingual sentences and terms1) from the Web can benefit many NLP applications, such as machine translation and cross language information retrieval. In this paper, based on the observation that bilingual data in many web pages appear collectively following similar patterns, an adaptive pattern-based bilingual data mining method is proposed.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Publishing Chinese medicine knowledge as Linked Data on the Web...
We apply pattern-based methods for collecting hypernym relations from the web. We compare our approach with hypernym extraction from morphological clues and from large text corpora. We show that the abundance of available data on the web enables obtaining good results with relatively unsophisticated techniques.
Hi! Thanks for picking up my book. I sincerely hope that it finds its way to a convenient
spot on your desk. Nothing would warm my heart more than to see a beat-down, dogeared,
coffee-stained copy of this book right next to your computer.
On the other hand, it would drive me nuts if you bought this book only to discover that
it didn’t address your needs. In the spirit of customer satisfaction, please read the following
introduction to get a sense of where I’m coming from, and whether you might get
some good use out of this book....
This paper presents a new web mining scheme for parallel data acquisition. Based on the Document Object Model (DOM), a web page is represented as a DOM tree. Then a DOM tree alignment model is proposed to identify the translationally equivalent texts and hyperlinks between two parallel DOM trees. By tracing the identified parallel hyperlinks, parallel web documents are recursively mined. Compared with previous mining schemes, the benchmarks show that this new mining scheme improves the mining coverage, reduces mining bandwidth, and enhances the quality of mined parallel sentences.
XSQL isn't just some razzle-dazzle technology. It allows you to easily leverage the most robust, mature, and usable technologies in the industry: SQL, HTML, HTTP, XML, Java, and the Oracle RDBMS. With an exciting first look at XSQL, this innovative book shows you how to bring all of these powerful technologies together in order to publish dynamic Web content. You'll first find a comprehensive discussion of how XSQL relates to each of these technologies. Then you'll learn how you can use XSQL to present your database data on the Web instantly. The numerous code examples will show you how to...
The existence of different autonomous Web sites containing related information
has given rise to the problem of integrating these sources effectively to provide a
comprehensive integrated source of relevant information. The advent of e-commerce
and the increasing trend of availability of commercial data on the Web has generated
the need to analyze and manipulate these data to support corporate decision
making. Decision support systems now must be able to harness and analyze Web
data to provide organizations with a competitive edge.
The best practice today is to read data into the SAS environment for processing. For highly repeatable processes, this
might not be efficient because it takes time to transfer the data and resources are used to temporarily store in the
SAS environment. In some cases, the results of the SAS processing must be transferred back to the DBMS for final
storage, which further increases the cost. Addressing this challenge can result in improved resource utilization and
enable companies to answer business questions more quickly. ...
We argue for the need for systems that output fewer terms, but with a higher precision. Moreover, all the above were conducted on language pairs including English. It would be possible, albeit more difficult, to obtain comparable corpora for pairs such as French-Japanese. We will try to remove the need to gather corpora beforehand altogether. To achieve this, we use the web as our only source of data. This idea is not new, and has already been tried by Cao and Li (2002) for base noun phrase translation. ...
Lichens have been used to study air pollution chemistry in national parks and forests since the 1980s
(Figures 1 and 2). There have also been a few lichen studies on national wildlife refuges. Most of the
studies have been floristic studies, reports of baseline concentrations of elements in lichen tissues and,
occasionally, trends in these concentrations. Figure 1 shows park and refuge locations with tissue
chemistry data. USGS Biological Resources Division maintains a web site listing lichens known from each
of the national parks shown on the map (http://www.ies.wisc.
In this book for designers, developers, and product managers, expert developer and user interface designer Lukas Mathis explains how to make usability the cornerstone of every point in your design process, walking you through the necessary steps to plan the design for an application or website, test it, and get usage data after the design is complete. He shows you how to focus your design process on the most important thing: helping people get things done, easily and efficiently.
The US government has cut back on its reporting over time, and its web pages now do little more that
report on current events. Unlike the Iraq War, there is no Department of Defense quarterly report on the
progress of the war, and efforts to create effective Afghan security, governance, and development. There
is no equivalent to the State Department weekly status report. Testimony to Congress, while useful, does
not provide detailed statements or back up slide with maps, graphs, and other data on the course of the
Web text has been successfully used as training data for many NLP applications. While most previous work accesses web text through search engine hit counts, we created a Web Corpus by downloading web pages to create a topic-diverse collection of 10 billion words of English. We show that for context-sensitive spelling correction the Web Corpus results are better than using a search engine. For thesaurus extraction, it achieved similar overall results to a corpus of newspaper text.
In this insightful book, you'll learn from the best data practitioners in the field just how wide-ranging -- and beautiful -- working with data can be. Join 39 contributors as they explain how they developed simple and elegant solutions on projects ranging from the Mars lander to a Radiohead video.
With Beautiful Data, you will:
Explore the opportunities and challenges involved in working with the vast number of datasets made available by the Web
Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial
distribution – should be addressed to WHO Press through the WHO web site (http://www.who.int/about/
The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the
expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal
status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its
frontiers or boundaries.
This paper proposes to solve the bottleneck of finding training data for word sense disambiguation (WSD) in the domain of web queries, where a complete set of ambiguous word senses are unknown. In this paper, we present a combination of active learning and semi-supervised learning method to treat the case when positive examples, which have an expected word sense in web search result, are only given. The novelty of our approach is to use “pseudo negative examples” with reliable confidence score estimated by a classifier trained with positive and unlabeled examples.
Scattered throughout the tutorial there are a number of sections devoted more to explaining
the basics of XML than to programming exercises. They are listed here so as to form an
XML thread you can follow without covering the entire programming tutorial: Understanding XML and the Java XML APIs explains the basics of XML
and gives you a guide to the acronyms associated with it. It also provides an overview
of the JavaTM XML APIs you can use to manipulate XML-based data, including the Java
API for XML Parsing ((JAXP).
Our previous tutorial discussed the basics of XML
and demonstrated its potential to revolutionize the
Web. In this tutorial, we’ll discuss how to use an
XML parser to:
• Process an XML document
• Create an XML document
• Manipulate an XML document
We’ll also talk about some useful, lesser-known
features of XML parsers. Best of all, every tool
discussed here is freely available at IBM’s
alphaWorks site (www.alphaworks.ibm.com) and
other places on the Web.