Xem 1-18 trên 18 kết quả Debt distress
  • The Debt Sustainability Framework sets out a proposal by the World Bank for identifying countries in actual or potential debt distress situations leading to a formula for determining grant eligibility within the amounts to be allocated during the Fourteenth Replenishment of IDA. It attempts to classify countries based on the performance of their institutions and policies and determine thresholds for selected debt indicators for each country grouping and then estimate the level of debt distress as measured by the forecast levels of the selected indicators from the country DSAs.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'debt sustainability framework for low income countries: policy and resource implications', kinh tế - quản lý, quản lý nhà nước phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • The Debt Sustainability Framework sets out a proposal by the World Bank for identifying countries in actual or potential debt distress situations leading to a formula for determining grant eligibility within the amounts to be allocated during the Fourteenth Replenishment of IDA. It attempts to classify countries based on the performance of their institutions and policies and determine thresholds for selected debt indicators for each country grouping and then estimate the level of debt distress as measured by the forecast levels of the selected indicators from the country DSAs.

    pdf10p thuytinh_den 11-07-2010 78 17   Download

  • The starting point for the allocation of grants is the system in place for allocating IDA funds based on the PBA system that was described in the previous section. This ensures the link with policy performance that has increasingly been the basis on which IDA funds have been allocated in successive replenishments. Thereafter, the country groupings based on debt distress are used to allocate grant funds within the IDA country allocations that have been determined.

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  • The World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), as the leading lending agencies, have been under mounting pressure to deal with a wide range of debt sustainability challenges. The challenges have refused to subside. Instead they continue to stimulate urgent need for a new debt sustainability framework and debt management orientation that can allow for the borrowing economies to break the vicious circle of unending distress.

    pdf12p thuytinh_den 11-07-2010 59 4   Download

  • The plan of the paper is as follows. Section 1 argues that very high government debt/GDP ratios will increase uncertainty about the future path of interest rates. This will reduce the degree of asset substitutability between short-dated and long-dated paper, impairing the effectiveness of changes to the policy rate and making the short-term/long-term mix of government debt sales a more effective instrument of macroeconomic policy (Section 2). But the long-term interest rate on government bonds also has fundamental implications for financial stability (Section 3).

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  • Despite the fact that some distressed investors have abandoned the market in the last few years as the supply of new defaulted debt has diminished, there still exists an impressive number of investors who specialize in this rather unique asset class. The primary vehicle for investing is a limited partnership, whereby a particular distressed-asset investment manager raises funds from financial institutions and wealthy individuals.

    pdf23p quaivattim 04-12-2012 28 2   Download

  • For this reason, levels of mental distress among communities need to be understood less in terms of individual pathology and more as a response to relative deprivation and social injustice, which erode the emotional, spiritual and intellectual resources essential to psychological wellbeing. While psycho- social stress is not the only route through which disadvantage affects outcomes, it does appear to be pivotal.

    pdf27p quygia123 06-11-2012 18 0   Download

  • The FSVM is missing a variable reflecting that the forward earnings yield is riskier than the government bond yield. How should we measure risk in the model? An obvious choice is to use the spread between corporate bond yields and Treasury bond yields. This spread measures the market’s assessment of the risk that some corporations might be forced to default on their bonds. Of course, such events are very unusual, especially for companies included in the S&P 500.

    pdf28p diemanh 11-03-2009 102 23   Download

  • Company Act of 1940. 14 If the current rules were in place in 2007 and 2008, prime MMMFs could still have held the distressed asset-backed commercial paper and Lehman debt securities that triggered support for many funds and the break the buck event for the Reserve Fund. Indeed, Lehman debt maintained the highest short term ratings up through the time it filed for bankruptcy. 15 And recent sponsor behavior indicates that support is still a likely event in the face of such credit events or uncertainty.

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  • The presence of the financial safety net can affect the behaviour of bank stock prices. Explicit provisions such as deposit insurance and the access to liquidity facilities by the central bank, as well as the perceived availability of state support in times of distress, can affect market discipline by numbing creditors’ sensitivity to risk-taking by banks.

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  • It appears that the 1998 totals are somewhat lower due to the benign credit cycle in the U.S. for the past five years (1993-1997), when default rates on public high yield bonds averaged less than 2% each year (Exhibit 2, Altman & Kishore, 1998). The supply of public, domestic defaulted bonds was about $10 billion as of mid-1998 and our best estimate of distressed public debt is about $13 billion. At the same time, we have noticed an increase in distressed securities in 1998. The resulting total of defaulted and distressed, public bonds and private debt as of end of August 1998 is...

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  • More than ever before, people are being asked to make decisions and take responsibility for managing their finances. This is an area that many people can find daunting and confusing. For some, thinking about their long-term financial security is dispiriting or even distressing, particularly if they are struggling to manage debt or other commitments. The number and complexity of choices to be made have increased dramatically over the last 25 years, so that many find it hard to understand financial products and the risks associated with them.

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  • In my prior works (Altman 1992, 1996) on the distressed and defaulted debt market, estimates of the size of the market were as high as $300 billion (face value) and $200 billion (market value) at the start of 1990. Since that date, the size of the market has diminished consistently. This data is shown in Exhibit 1 and includes public and private debt estimates. The private debt total was estimated by applying a multiplier of as high as three times the public debt in 1990 and as low as 1.85-to-one in 1992. Both of these estimates are based on empirical observations of a...

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  • We have described in detail the benefits to the distressed countries of issuing Trichet bonds. There are also significant benefits to the bond holders which provide incentives for them to accept the voluntary swap. Bond holders will receive in a Trichet bond a higher quality bond than will be easily traded in a liquid market. The debt holder EU banks may be able to do the swap in Trichet bonds for the sovereign debt they hold in their capital accounts without writing the marked-to-market loss in their books, thereby escaping bankruptcy....

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  • Distressed securities can be defined narrowly as those publicly held and traded debt and equity securities of firms that have defaulted on their debt obligations and/or have filed for protection under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code. A more comprehensive definition would include those publicly held debt securities selling at sufficiently discounted prices so as to be yielding, should they not default, a significant premium over comparable duration U.S. Treasury bonds. For this segment, I have chosen a premium of a minimum of 10 percent over comparable U.S.Treasuries.

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  • The long duration of Trichet bonds removes the immediate crisis caused by short term expiration of significant amounts of debt which is looming over Greece, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and possibly other EU countries. Trichet bonds allow distressed countries to defer maturities over a longer period and to effect economic reforms before having to return to capital markets on the basis of their own credit-worthiness. Trichet Bonds will enable sovereigns to see bond spreads be reduced considerably from their record levels at present.

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  • Presently the EU and ECB do not have a mechanism to deal with anything but the most severe, acute, and immediate aspects of the crisis. Two other possible solutions have been discussed, and we show below that they are both inferior to the Trichet bonds solution we propose. The solution proposed by European authorities so far involves the ECB’s purchase of outstanding sovereign debt in the market, which has only succeeded in buying a small amount of the distressed debt while pushing bond prices upwards as a result of the intervention.

    pdf20p taisaocothedung 12-01-2013 19 1   Download

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