This volume constitutes the Proceedings of the 9th International Congress
of Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science arranged by the Division of
Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science of the International Union of
History and Philosophy of Science. The logical sections of the Congress also
constituted the European Logic Colloqium '91. The Congress took place in
Uppsala, Sweden, from August 7 to August 14, 1991.
However, it is important to note that beliefs need not be significantly biased simply
because information is not quantified. For instance, the managers who decide how much
Chemical A to use may understand that, because of disposal costs, its true costs are greater
than $50. That is, there may be a qualitative understanding of the disposal cost X that
influences the firm's decisions. While still uncertain, managers may estimate X to be
something greater than zero, and thus closer to its true value.
A respectable period of time has passed since the first edition of this book, during which
several pressures have necessitated a second edition. Most important, there were the
inadvertent errors needing correction. The field has also had some significant changes,
not so much in methodology perhaps as in context, regulation, and the like. I can say
some things more clearly now than previously because many issues are better defined
or I care more (or less) about how the discussion will be received....
Although the formalisms normally used for describing the semantics of natural languages are far from computationally tractable, it is possible to isolate particular semantic phenomena and interpret them within simpler formal systems. Quantified mass noun phrases is one such part. We describe a simple formal system suitable for the interpretation of quantified mass noun phrases.