We present a knowledge and context-based system for parsing and translating natural language and evaluate it on sentences from the Wall Street Journal. Applying machine learning techniques, the system uses parse action examples acquired under supervision to generate a deterministic shift-reduce parser in the form of a decision structure. It relies heavily on context, as encoded in features which describe the morphological, syntactic, semantic and other aspects of a given parse state.
We present a shift-reduce rhetorical parsing algorithm that learns to construct rhetorical structures of texts from a corpus of discourse-parse action sequences. The algorithm exploits robust lexical, syntactic, and semantic knowledge sources.
In this chapter, you will learn: Explain the effects of financial leverage, distinguish between business risk and financial risk, understand the ‘capital structure irrelevance’ theory of Modigliani and Miller (MM), explain the roles of taxes and other factors that may influence capital structure decisions,…
Chapter 14 - Capital structure decisions. Learning objectives in chapter: Outline empirical evidence from recent studies on capital structure; assess the implications of the evidence for the trade-off, pecking order and free cash flow theories; explain how financing can be viewed as a marketing problem; outline the main factors that financial managers should consider when determining a company’s financing strategy.
Chapter 10 - Supporting decision making. In this chapter students will be able to: Identify the changes taking place in the form and use of decision support in business, identify the role and reporting alternatives of management information systems, describe how online analytical processing can meet key information needs of managers,...
This chapter explore the valuation underpinnings to the question of capital structure. As we shall see, much controversy surrounds the issue. Despite the unsettled nature of the matter, we hope that this presentation will provide the conceptual backdrop necessary to guide the financial manager in capital structure decisions.
In this paper we investigate a structured model for jointly classifying the sentiment of text at varying levels of granularity. Inference in the model is based on standard sequence classiﬁcation techniques using constrained Viterbi to ensure consistent solutions. The primary advantage of such a model is that it allows classiﬁcation decisions from one level in the text to inﬂuence decisions at another. Experiments show that this method can signiﬁcantly reduce classiﬁcation error relative to models trained in isolation. ...
In this paper we present a novel, customizable IE paradigm that takes advantage of predicate-argument structures. We also introduce a new way of automatically identifying predicate argument structures, which is central to our IE paradigm. It is based on: (1) an extended set of features; and (2) inductive decision tree learning. The experimental results prove our claim that accurate predicate-argument structures enable high quality IE results.
This paper proposes a principled approach for analysis of semantic relations between constituents in compound nouns based on lexical semantic structure. One of the difﬁculties of compound noun analysis is that the mechanisms governing the decision system of semantic relations and the representation method of semantic relations associated with lexical and contextual meaning are not obvious.
Substantial efforts have been made in order to cope with disjunctions in constraint based grammar formalisms (e.g. [Kasper, 1987; Maxwell and Kaplan, 1991; DSrre and Eisele, 1990].). This paper describes the roles of disjunctions and inheritance in the use of feature structures and their formal semantics. With the notion of contexts we abstract from the graph structure of feature structures and properly define the search space of alternatives.
Systems Analysis and Design: Chapter 9 - Describing Process Specifications and Structured Decision's Objectives is Understand the purpose of process specifications; Recognize the difference between structured and semistructured decisions.
The market structure and the degree of competitiveness in the industry affect a firm’s pricing and output strategy and, eventually, its long-run profitability. Chapter 4 introduce the firm and market structures. Inviting you refer.
Chapter 5 - Managerial decision making. The main contents of this chapter include all of the following: Nature of managerial decision making, managers as decision makers, effective decision making, barriers to effective decision making, group decision making, creativity in decision making.
Chapter 9 - Basic elements of organisational structure. In this chapter you will learn: Nature of organisational structure, job design, types of departmentalisation, methods of vertical co-ordination, promoting innovation (methods of horizontal co-ordination).
After reading this chapter, you should be able to: List the main decision areas and concepts in employee compensation management, describe the major administrative tools used to manage employee compensation, explain the importance of competitive labor market and product market forces in compensation decisions,...
On completion of this chapter students will learned how to: Create simple if and if-else statements, create relational expressions, utilize logical operators, interpret the order of precedence for all operators (arithmetic, relational, and logical), create multiple decision statements (if-else-if or switch statements), utilize bool data type.
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It focuses on those attributes of American law that are likely to be least familiar to jurists from other legal traditions such as American common law, the federal structure of the U.S. legal system, and the American constitutional tradition. The use of comparative law technique permits foreign jurists to appreciate the American legal system in comparison with legal systems with which they are already familiar.
• Provide policy makers and external observers with a data-rich
assessment of Vietnam’s competitiveness, using a comprehensive
• Develop an integrated set of policy recommendations, supported by a
transparent logic and data
• Engage decision makers from different constituencies in a dialogue on
the future of Vietnam’s competitiveness
Today, we are going to talk about:
Another class of linear codes, known as
Structures of the encoder and different
ways for representing it.: state diagram and
trellis representation of the code.
What is a Maximum likelihood decoder?
How the decoding is performed for
Convolutional codes (the Viterbi