Deep structure

Xem 1-20 trên 54 kết quả Deep structure
  • Extensive evidence confirms that creating the conditions for a deep and efficient financial system can contribute robustly to sustained economic growth and lower poverty (e.g., see Beck, Levine, and Loayza 2000, Honohan 2004a, and World Bank 2001a). Moreover, in all levels of development, continued efficient and effective provision of financial services requires that financial policies and financial system structures be adjusted as needed in response to financial innovations and shifts in the broader macroeconomic and institu- tional environment....

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  • Shape-mass, on the other hand, demands to be understood as volume structure in three dimensions; this makes it possible to draw the figure in deep space projections, putting the human form into the most inventive and varied conceptions of foreshortening, advancing and receding in space. Conceiving the figure as shape-mass permits the artist to manipulate the figure creatively, part by part, making changes according to his desire.

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  • We have developed a novel, publicly available annotation tool for the semantic encoding of texts, especially those in the narrative domain. Users can create formal propositions to represent spans of text, as well as temporal relations and other aspects of narrative. A built-in naturallanguage generation component regenerates text from the formal structures, which eases the annotation process. We have run collection experiments with the tool and shown that non-experts can easily create semantic encodings of short fables. ...

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  • Pure statistical parsing systems achieves high in-domain accuracy but performs poorly out-domain. In this paper, we propose two different approaches to produce syntactic dependency structures using a large-scale hand-crafted HPSG grammar. The dependency backbone of an HPSG analysis is used to provide general linguistic insights which, when combined with state-of-the-art statistical dependency parsing models, achieves performance improvements on out-domain tests.

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  • This paper introduces a machine learning method based on bayesian networks which is applied to the mapping between deep semantic representations and lexical semantic resources. A probabilistic model comprising Minimal Recursion Semantics (MRS) structures and lexicalist oriented semantic features is acquired. Lexical semantic roles enriching the MRS structures are inferred, which are useful to improve the accuracy of deep semantic parsing.

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  • This paper describes a wide-coverage statistical parser that uses Combinatory Categorial Grammar (CCG) to derive dependency structures. The parser differs from most existing wide-coverage treebank parsers in capturing the long-range dependencies inherent in constructions such as coordination, extraction, raising and control, as well as the standard local predicate-argument dependencies. A set of dependency structures used for training and testing the parser is obtained from a treebank of CCG normal-form derivations, which have been derived (semi-) automatically from the Penn Treebank. ...

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  • We present an architecture for the integration of shallow and deep NLP components which is aimed at flexible combination of different language technologies for a range of practical current and future applications. In particular, we describe the integration of a high-level HPSG parsing system with different high-performance shallow components, ranging from named entity recognition to chunk parsing and shallow clause recognition.

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  • We present a novel approach for finding discontinuities that outperforms previously published results on this task. Rather than using a deeper grammar formalism, our system combines a simple unlexicalized PCFG parser with a shallow pre-processor. This pre-processor, which we call a trace tagger, does surprisingly well on detecting where discontinuities can occur without using phase structure information.

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  • A framework for a structured representation of semantic knowledge (e.g. word-senses) has been defined at the IBM Scientific Center of Roma, as part of a project on Italian Text Understanding. This representation, based on the conceptual graphs formalism [SOW84], expresses deep knowledge (pragmatic) on word-senses. The knowledge base data structure is such as to provide easy access by the semantic verification algorithm. This paper discusses some important problem related to the definition of a semantic knowledge base, as depth versus generality, hierarchical ordering of concept types, etc.

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  • Many students wait until the last minute to write papers, hoping that the pressure of deadlines will force out well-organized facts and deep analysis directly onto the page. If you can write good papers at the last minute and feel good about doing so, then read no further. But if you find yourself feeling uneasy with your writing expertise, if your graduation paper topic puts you out on a limb, or if the papers turn out to be not as good as they might be, then consider a change of habit.

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  • The 1980s and 1990s have been critical periods for Thailand’s development. After an initial period of instability in the early 1980s, Thailand’s economy expanded at an average pace of 9 percent p.a. during 1987–96, while the number of households below the poverty line dropped from 32.6 percent in 1988 to 16.3 percent in 1996. During this period, Thailand’s economy also underwent deep structural changes, including the liberalization of its financial sector and the integration of its economy with global financial and product markets.

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  • Holliway and McCutchen (2004) stressed that the coordination of the author, text, and reader representations “builds on multiple sources of interpersonal, cognitive, and textual competencies” and may well account for most of the difficulties that children experience with revision. In an early study of expert versus novice differences in writers, Sommers (1980) documented that professional writers routinely and spontaneously revise their texts extensively and globally, making deep structural changes.

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  • A system for semantic analysis of a wide range of English sentence forms is described. The system has been implemented in LISP 1.5 on the System Development Corporation (SDC) time-shared computer. Semantic analysis is defined as the selection of a unique word sense for each word in a natural-language sentence string and its bracketing in an underlying deep structure of that string.

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  • 5 The Triumph of Utilitarianism and the Marginalist Revolution 5.1. The Marginalist Revolution 5.1.1. The ‘climax’ of the 1870s and 1880s The quarter century from the early 1870s was a period of contrasts. On the one hand, there was a continuation or, rather, an intensification, of the process of deep structural change

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  • Physical Characteristics of Riding Camels: Slender animals with a long and level shoulder, head small with a fine muzzle, moderate lips, ears small and set close together, eyes alert, lower jaw deep below the eye; the neck is fine and supple and joined low down to the trunk; a smallish hump; the shoulder long and fine, the chest very deep, abdomen tucked in, ribs well sprung and terminating not far from the pelvic bone; the fore legs set close together, straight, no brushing at the knees, feet not turned out, the hind legs straight, with no cow hocks; the quarters...

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  • This is a book that you will find difficult to stop reading, and it is a book that you will not easily forget. There are facts in this book about causal analysis, measurement, and statistical methodology that will cause you to rethink much of what you assumed or were told was “best practice.” It is also an exciting book because of what it promises the social scientistda pioneering venture into the undiscovered country of a 21st-century psychological science.

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  • The study of DNA advanced human knowledge in a way comparable to the major theories in physics, surpassed only by discoveries such as fire or the number zero. However, it also created conceptual shortcuts, beliefs and misunderstandings that obscure the natural phenomena, hindering its better understanding. The deep conviction that no human knowledge is perfect, but only perfectible, should function as a fair safeguard against scientific dogmatism and enable open discussion. With this aim, this book will offer to its readers 30 chapters on current trends in the field of DNA replication.

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  • This study investigated the effects of two highly sulfated polysaccharides, calcium pentosan polysulfate and heparin, on the loss of newly synthesized proteoglycans from the matrix of explant cultures of bovine tendon. The tensional region of deep flexor tendon was incubated with [ 35 S]sulfate for 6 h and then placed in culture for up to 15 days.

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  • From the lipopolysaccharide of the deep rough mutant I-69 Rd–/b+ of Haemophilus influenzae two oligosaccharides were obtained after de-O-acylation and separation by high-performance anion exchange chromatography. Their chemical structures were determined by one- and two-dimensional 1H-, 13C- and 31P-NMR spectroscopy as aKdo-4P-(2 fi 6)-bGlcN-4P-(1 fi 6)-aGlcN-1P and aKdo-5P-(2 fi 6)-bGlcN-4P-(1 fi 6)-aGlcN-1P.

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  • Brazilian shipbuilding industry, the main representative of this industry in Latin America, has been very active during the 70s and 80s. Afterwards it has experimented a deep decline. The main preserved construction niche was devoted to supply boats for offshore operations. More recently, due to a political decision from the federal government, most of the orders for offshore platforms and large ocean ships have been placed in the national shipyards.

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