Defence strategies

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  • This system is financed through a mixture of public and private insurance and out-of-pocket payments by families, especially for mental, developmental, and oral health services that are not well covered by insurance.Many services are pro- vided within the traditional health care sector (doctors’ offices, hospitals, and clinics); however, some services such as mental health services take place outside the health care sector in schools and in child care and community centers, further fragmenting delivery pathways and complicating access.

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  • The security architecture should be developed by both the network design and the IT security teams. It is typically integrated into the existing enterprise network and is dependent on the IT services that are offered through the network infrastructure. The access and security requirements of each IT service should be defined before the network is divided into modules with clearly identified trust levels. Each module can be treated separately and assigned a different security model.

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  • The natural question is whether these heterogeneous expectations co-evolve into homogeneous rational-expectations beliefs, upholding the efficient-market theory, or whether richer individual and collective behavior emerges, upholding the traders’ viewpoint and explaining the empirical market phenomena mentioned above. We answer this not analytically—our model with its fully heterogeneous expectations it is too complicated to admit of analytical solutions—but computationally.

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  • Most of the South Asian and Pacific countries have similarities in setting the policy and execution of dairy and beef cattle genetic improvement programmes. Historically, governments have played a major role in cattle farming and breeding activities; nowadays, however, the initiatives of the private sector or of non-government organizations are modifying the needs of farmers for support from the government. About 90% of the contribution of the livestock sector is from small holders and this proportion is highly consistent across countries.

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  • Plants are continuously challenged by a variety of abiotic and biotic cues. To deter feeding insects, nematodes and fungal and bacterial pathogens, plants have evolved a plethora of defence strategies. A central player in many of these defence responses is jasmonic acid.

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  • Competences are acquired by, and belong to, students or graduates, rather than teachers. For a graduate who has successfully completed the degree programme, their competences should be at least equivalent to the prescribed learning outcomes (although they are very likely to have developed further in particular areas of learning). In that sense, when referring to the point of graduation, specified learning outcomes can be viewed as equivalent to core graduate competences, and the same descriptors can be used. In the Tuning Project the terms are often used interchangeably....

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  • The discussion of the properties of relative international prices has been closely tied with a discussion on the nature of the pricing decisions by ¯rms. 5 The observed slow pass-through of exchange rate changes to consumer prices and deviations from the law of one price for traded goods are consistent with prices of imported goods that are sticky in the currency of the consumer (local currency pricing). This pricing mechanism, however, dampens the expenditure-switching e®ect of nominal exchange rate movements.

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  • The system we are considering needs to support communications for 109 devices. The users using these devices would be interested in peer-to-peer (P2P) style of communication, business- to-business (B2B) interactions or a be part of a system comprising of agents where discoveries are initiated for services from any of these devices. Finally, some of these devices could also be used as part of a computation. The devices are thus part of a complex distributed system. Communication in the system is through events, which are encapsulated within messages.

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  • Numerous U.S. REITs and other institutions have invested in real property connected to maquiladoras, retail development and tourism. This trend should persist because Mexico is ripe for continued investment. With respect to retail development, for example, there are fewer than 1,000 malls and shopping centers in Mexico, which has a population of approximately 110 million people. In comparison, there are more than 102,000 malls and shopping centers in the U.S., which has a population of approximately 306 million people.

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  • Irish IFs are owned mainly by non-residents, with 26 per cent held by other euro area residents and 68 per cent held by those outside the euro area and just 6 per cent owned by Irish residents. This breakdown reflects a significant move in ownership away from euro area residents to the rest of the world over recent quarters. Similarly most assets owned by Irish resident IFs are domiciled outside the state. When unclassified assets are excluded, just 9.4 per cent of capital is invested in Irish assets, 13.5 per cent invested...

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  • Foreign investors are significant players in the equity market. Indeed, foreigners are majority investors, especially, in public offering market. Most non-resident investors are domiciled in the U.S. and Europe, introducing an important link between the offering market and conditions overseas (see Figure 5). In August and September 2011, for example, there was no share issuance––several public offerings were canceled or postponed due to investors’ concerns on contagion risks from the euro zone.

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  • Indeed, in the presence of predictability in fund risk loadings and benchmark returns, optimal portfolios consist entirely of actively managed funds even when the possibility of manager skills in stock selection and benchmark timing is ruled out. That is, actively managed funds allow the investor to capitalize on predictability in benchmarks and fund risk loadings in a way that cannot be achieved through long-only index fund positions. We now turn to analyze predictability in manager skills.

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  • The IDB began its study thinking the funds had a major impact on em- ployment and income. Our study shows the estimates we made. We collected the data on employment generation in all the funds and ex- penditures per year on average in the funds. The study found that the impact of the funds on employment and income is small. Only the first emergency fund of Bolivia added more than 1 percent per year to the total number of jobs in the economy. Only three funds in the region added more than 0.5 percent to the number of jobs. In other words, the funds did not have a...

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  • Hexabromobenzene (HBB) has been used as a flame retardant in polymers, plastics, textiles, wood and paper. Its primary uses have been reported in the plastics, paper and electrical industries (Bruchajzer et al., 2004). U.S. production/import volume was listed as 10,000- 500,000 pounds for 1998, but no information is available beyond that time (U.S. EPA, 2002). In addition to its use as a flame retardant, HBB is a thermal decomposition product of octa- and decaBDEs and hexabromobiphenyl (as cited in Bruchajzer et al., 2004).

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  • The French position was partly accommodated in the ECOFIN meeting on 20 June, by making the attainment of a close-to-balance position for France contingent on highly optimistic growth rates, i.e. it implicitly allowed the deadline for the achievement of the medium-term position to be missed. Italy took this outcome as a common understanding in the Council that allowed for a focus on growth and more flexibility in the fiscal framework. The government started then openly to discuss tax reductions, which would delay the attainment of the close to balance or in surplus position.

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  • The paper proceeds as follows. First, we demonstrate the public policy demand for standardized units of ecosystem measurement. Second, we advance and defend an economic definition of units of account. Third, we contrast this definition with existing definitions of services and environmental accounting units. Fourth, we concretely illustrate our definition via an inventory of measurable ecosystem services.

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  • An important purpose of the Financial Report is to help citizens and policymakers assess whether current fiscal policy is sustainable and, if it is not, the urgency and magnitude of policy reforms necessary to make it sustainable. A sustainable policy is one where the ratio of debt held by the public to GDP (the debt-to-GDP ratio) is stable in the long run. Sustainability concerns only whether long-run revenues and expenditures are in balance; it does not concern fairness or efficiency implications of the reforms necessary to achieve sustainability.

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  • Audit Committees are no more than a part of those defences. But we believe that they are a most important part and that there could be considerable benefits if their role were clarified and enhanced. This would be beneficial not only in increasing the level of assurance against catastrophic failure and gross malfeasance; it would also offer improvements on a wider front, raising the overall standard of corporate governance for all companies that implement our guidance.

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  • The signing of the Global Political Agreement (GPA) in 2008 and the creation of the Inclusive Government provided a new beginning for Zimbabwe. Progress on the implementation of the GPA has, however, been mixed.4Some important elements have been implemented such as amendments to the Electoral Act, the appointment of independent Commissions to address Media, Human Rights and Election issues and the issuing of Print and Media Licenses (15 in 2010). Furthermore, a Land Audit Commission and a National Economic Council have been established.

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  • Drawing on both Eastern and Western cultural traditions, Isamu Noguchi’s sculptures appear to possess “effortlessness,” a virtue Chinese artists once valued above perfection. Together with the numerous individual sculptures that have emerged from Noguchi’s various studios throughout his long and distinguished career, the artist has been involved in major environ- mental projects, especially since the early 1950s.

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