Deficiency stress

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  • The same amount of water has been present on our planet for about 4 billion years, since shortly after the Earth was formed. Since then it has cycled through evaporation, condensation, precipitation and surface runoff multiple times. Water scarcity as an abiotic factor ranging from moderate to severe stress levels, accompanied by loss of moisture in the soil, is extremely hard for most organisms to cope with, particularly terrestrial plants and their food-chain dependents.

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  • Tham khảo sách 'a guide to identifying and managing nutrient deficiencies in cereal crops', kỹ thuật - công nghệ, tự động hoá phục vụ nhu cầu học tập, nghiên cứu và làm việc hiệu quả

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  • IN BOTH NATURAL AND AGRICULTURAL CONDITIONS, plants are frequently exposed to environmental stresses. Some environmental factors, such as air temperature, can become stressful in just a few minutes; others, such as soil water content, may take days to weeks, and factors such as soil mineral deficiencies can take months to become stressful. It has been estimated that because of stress resulting from climatic and soil conditions (abiotic factors) that are suboptimal, the yield of field-grown crops in the United States is only 22% of the genetic potential yield (Boyer 1982).

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  • The facts of silicon (Si) in plant life are one thing; the concepts regarding Si in plant physiology are another thing altogether. Most terrestrial plants grow in media dominated by silicates, and the soil solution bathing roots contains Si at concentrations exceeding those of phosphorus (P) by roughly a factor of 100. Plants absorb the element, and their Si content is of the same order of magnitude as that of the macronutrient elements.

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  • Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR) is a technique used if more than one negative to positive cash flow change occurs. This technique is beyond the scope of this article. Its primary benefit is that it eliminates multiple negative and positive cash flows during the hold period, adjusts for reinvestment during periods of positive cash flow and the cost of borrowing to cover periods of negative cash flow. However, it still suffers from some of the deficiencies associated with Internal Rate of Return.

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  • Under a deferral and matching approach, losses are only recognized and reserved for after the event triggering coverage has occurred, i.e., for events during the expired portion of the policy period. Losses arising from the unexpired portion of the policy are not covered by the loss reserve but instead are covered by the Unearned Premium Reserve. It is possible that either reserve may become deficient to cover their respective losses. The recorded liability for loss reserves may become deficient to cover the estimated ultimate cost of incurred losses.

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  • There are two general decision making strategies that judges use when evaluating a beer. In a top-down decision making strategy, the judge forms an overall impression about the quality of the beer, decides what overall score to assign that beer, and deducts points for each deficient characteristic of the beer based on the overall impression. The problem with this top-down approach to beer evaluation is that it is difficult to ensure that the points allocated to each subcategory (e.g.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học 'Respiratory Research cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài:" AMP-activated protein kinase deficiency reduces ozone-induced lung injury and oxidative stress in mice...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Vitamin B6 deficient plants display increased sensitivity to high light and photo-oxidative stress

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  • Magnesium deficiency is very often present and quite severe. Hyperreflexia, muscle twitches, myocardial irritability, poor stamina and recurrent tight muscle spasms are clues to this deficiency. Magnesium is predominantly an intracellular ion, so blood level testing is of little value. Oral preparations are acceptable for maintenance, but those with severe deficiencies need additional, parenteral dosing: 1 gram IV or IM at least once a week until neuromuscular irritability has cleared. Pituitary and other endocrine abnormalities are far more common than generally realized.

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  • Hepatopathy and hepatomegaly as consequences of prolonged fasting or illnesses are typical clinical features of very long chain acyl-CoA dehydro-genase (VLCACD) deficiency, the most common long-chain fatty acid b-oxidationdefect. Supplementationwithmedium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) is an important treatment measure in these defects, in order to supply suffi-cient energy.

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  • Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH; also known as ALDH3A2 or ALDH10) oxidizes medium- or long-chain aliphatic aldehydes. FALDH deficiency in humans is known to be the cause of Sjo¨gren–Larsson syn-drome, in which individuals display neurological symptoms and cutaneous abnormality.

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  • This textbook covers Plant Ecology from the molecular to the global level.

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  • EACH YEAR IN the United States, more than three million people sustain a traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this population, the psychosocial and psychological deficits are the major source of disability to the patient and of stress to the family. Patients may have difficulties in many vital areas of functioning, including family, interpersonal, work, school, and recreational activities. Many have extreme personality changes.

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  • Chlorophyll fluorescence represents an intrinsic signal emitted by plants that can be employed to monitor their physiological state including changes of the photosynthetic apparatus, developmental processes of leaves, state of health, stress events, stress tolerance, and also to detect diseases or nutrient deficiency of plants. In particular, the application of laser induced chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy has drawn much attention recently owing to the non-invasive and nondestructive nature of the technique (Svanberg, 1995; Lang & Lichtenthaler, 1991; Chappelle et al., 1984)....

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  • Following their lipophilicity, it is more plausible that vitamin E and ß-carotene cooperate to protect membranes and lipoproteins from oxidative damages. Of course, as all antioxidants, vitamin E exerts other biological functions that are independent from its antioxidant properties, including modulation of cellular signaling, gene expression, immune response, and many more. However, as opposed to other vitamins, lack of vitamin E results in rather unspecific symptoms, also highlighting that this vitamin is mainly needed for its antioxidant activity in vivo.

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  • Experts have made recommendations to incorporate nutrition as an essential component of primary health care, stressing that programs to deal with women’s nutritional problems must be based on a life cycle approach. The nutritional needs of women substantially change during the different stages of their lives. A life cycle approach allows a better recognition of specific nutritional needs at every stage of women’s lives, as well as a more comprehensive understanding of the cumulative effects of poor nutrition on women’s health.

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  • Figure 101-1 RBC metabolism. The Embden-Meyerhof pathway (glycolysis) generates ATP for energy and membrane maintenance. The generation of NADPH maintains hemoglobin in a reduced state. The hexose monophosphate shunt generates NADPH that is used to reduce glutathione, which protects the red cell against oxidant stress. Regulation of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate levels is a critical determinant of oxygen affinity of hemoglobin.

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  • Moisture deficiencies occurring early in the crop cycle may delay the maturity season and reduce yields. Shortages later in the season often lower quality, as well as yields. However, irrigation surplus, especially late in the season, can reduce both the quality and the post-harvest life of the crop. Uneven or surplus irrigation, above the amount required to replace evapotranspiration, causes nitrate leaching below the root system and the ability of the crop to recover from the nitrogen deficiency decreases.

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  • The purpose of irrigation is to prevent water stress, especially during the formation of the part of the plant that will be harvested. Water stress can occur in a crop when the soil moisture is excessive or when it’s deficient. When oxygen concentration levels in the soil atmosphere are lowered due to displacement by water for an extended period of time, the root system can be severely damaged. Lettuce and green-leaf plants are especially susceptible to water stress due to their shallow root systems.

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