Children with disabilities are at risk for experiencing problems in many aspects
of their lives, including becoming independent in daily living skills, meeting
academic expectations, learning to communicate, maintaining emotional and
behavioral regulation, adapting to the social demands of society, and developing
The combination of acalculia (impairment of simple arithmetic), dysgraphia (impaired writing), finger anomia (an inability to name individual fingers such as the index or thumb), and right-left confusion (an inability to tell whether a hand, foot, or arm of the patient or examiner is on the right or left side of the body) is known as Gerstmann's syndrome. In making this diagnosis it is important to establish that the finger and left-right naming deficits are not part of a more generalized anomia and that the patient is not otherwise aphasic.
Caring for the Patient with Deficits of Higher Cerebral Function
Some of the deficits described in this chapter are so complex that they may bewilder not only the patient and family but also the physician. It is imperative to carry out a systematic clinical evaluation in order to characterize the nature of the deficits and explain them in lay terms to the patient and family. Such an explanation can allay at least some of the anxieties, address the mistaken impression that the deficit (e.g.
The correspondence between individual deficits of language function and lesion location does not display a rigid one-to-one relationship and should be conceptualized within the context of the distributed network model. Nonetheless, the classification of aphasias of acute onset into specific clinical syndromes helps to determine the most likely anatomic distribution of the underlying neurologic disease and has implications for etiology and prognosis (Table 27-1). The syndromes listed in Table 27-1 are most applicable to aphasias caused by cerebrovascular accidents (CVA).
The ability to walk safely, easily, and in an aesthetically pleasing manner is
a skill learned early and highly prized. Although it is typically taken for
granted, gait is key to mobility and functional independence and at the
core of our ability to carry out many activities of daily living. In older adults
and patients with neurological deficits, ease and safety in walking may
become compromised, and gait is often viewed as abnormal, i.e., as a disorder.
While not an inevitable part of aging, gait disorders are common
among older adults and in patients with neurological disease.
When the first edition of this book was published in 1993, I commented how
notions regarding Tourette’s syndrome (TS) had undergone recent dramatic
changes. Major shifts in views of the disorder included identification of its
complex spectrum of clinical features (including tics and specific behavioral
disorders, particularly obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder), establishment of heredity as a major etiological
factor, and recognition that, rather than a rare disorder, it occurs quite
commonly in the population....
As you worked your way through high school, or otherwise worked to prepare
yourself for college, you were probably unaware that an information
explosion was taking place in the field of biology. This explosion, brought on
by advances in biotechnology and communicated by faster, more powerful
computers, has allowed scientists to gather data more quickly and disseminate
data to colleagues in the global scientific community with the click of a
Intelligent systems, known as expert systems, serve to this purpose in the extent that they have signed as facilitators in this process. These are systems that are based on expert knowledge, on any subject, in order to emulate human expertise in the specific field. To obtain this knowledge, the knowledge engineers, also called software engineers, need to develop methodologies for intelligent systems. In this area there is still no unified methodology that provides effective methods, notations and tools to aid in development....
Falls are a common event, particularly among the elderly. Modest changes in balance function have been described in fit older subjects as a result of normal aging. Subtle deficits in sensory systems, attention, and motor reaction time contribute to the risk, and environmental hazards abound.
Epidemiologic studies have identified a number of risk factors for falls, summarized in Table 24-3. A fall is not a neurologic problem, nor reason for referral to a specialist, but there are circumstances in which neurologic evaluation is appropriate.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: A cross-sectional analysis of video games and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents...
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Does switching from oral extended-release methylphenidate to the methylphenidate transdermal system affect health-related quality-of-life and medication satisfaction for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder?
Not surprisingly, perhaps, the trend toward a predominantly female profession is not
restricted to the UK. According to statistics from the American Veterinary Medical
Association (AVMA), the number of female veterinarians in the US more than doubled
between 1991 and 2002 (Zhao, 2002). Whereas only 5% of applications to US vet schools
were from females in the late 1960s, by the end of the 1990s, over seventy percent of
applications were from young women.
Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Critical Care giúp cho các bạn có thêm kiến thức về ngành y học đề tài: Time courses of improvement and symptom remission in children treated with atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: analysis of Canadian open-label studies...
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài:
Comparative efficacy and acceptability of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: Medio-Frontal and Anterior Temporal abnormalities in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) during an acoustic antisaccade task as revealed by electro-cortical source reconstruction
Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành y học dành cho các bạn tham khảo đề tài: A modelled economic evaluation comparing atomoxetine with methylphenidate in the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in Spain
Well-being is more than the absence of mental illness. One review of the literature (Ryan &
Deci, 2001) describes it as ‘optimal psychological functioning and experience’. Precisely what
constitutes optimal experience has been the subject of philosophical debate since the roots of
the hedonic tradition in the 4th century BC when it was proposed that the goal of life was to
experience the maximum amount of pleasure.
Disorders of Gait
The heterogeneity of gait disorders observed in clinical practice reflects the large network of neural systems involved in the task. There is the potential for abnormalities to develop, and walking is vulnerable to neurologic disease at every level. Gait disorders have been classified descriptively, based on the abnormal physiology and biomechanics. One problem with this approach is that many failing gaits look fundamentally similar. This overlap reflects common patterns of adaptation to threatened balance stability and declining performance.