Defined population

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học General Psychiatry cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Decrease in the incidence of total hip arthroplasties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis - results from a well defined population in south Sweden...

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  • This chapter aims to clarify the concept of population balance model or population balance equation, terms that are used almost interchangeably in this book. This is followed by a short narrative of the strengths and weaknesses of these models. 1.1 What Are Population Balance Models? Population balance is not a well-defined concept in science and engineering, but means slightly different things to different people.

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  • In this chapter, you should be able to: Explain why the majority of point mutations are harmless; explain how sexual recombination generates genetic variability; define the terms population, species, gene pool, relative fitness, and neutral variation; list the five conditions of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium;...

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  • In this chapter, you should now be able to: Define and distinguish between the following sets of terms: density and dispersion; clumped dispersion, uniform dispersion, and random dispersion; life table and reproductive table; Type I, Type II, and Type III survivorship curves; semelparity and iteroparity; r-selected populations and K-selected populations. This chapter also explain how ecologists may estimate the density of a species, explain how limited resources and trade-offs may affect life histories,...

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  • Determining How to Select a Sample Basic Concepts in Sampling • Population: the entire group under study as defined by research objectives – Researchers define populations in specific terms such as “heads of households located in areas served by the company who are responsible for making the pest control decision.”

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  • A distinction is to be made between the terms 'efficacy' and 'effectiveness'. Efficacy is defined as "the probability of benefit to individuals in a defined population from a medical technology applied for a given medical problem under ideal conditions of use". By contrast, effectiveness is considered to have all the attributes of efficacy but to reflect "performance under ordinary conditions by the average practitioner for the typical patient" [12].

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  • Statistics has evolved into a very important discipline that is applied in many fields. In the modern age of computing, both statistical methodology and its applications are expanding greatly. Among the many areas of application, we (Friis and Chernick) have direct experience in the use of statistical methods to military problems, space surveillance, experimental design, data validation, forecasting workloads, predicting the cost and duration of insurance claims, quality assurance, the design and analysis of clinical trials, and epidemiologic studies....

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  • Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field which addresses biological problems using computational techniques, and makes the rapid organization and analysis of biological data possible. The field may also be referred to as computational biology, and can be defined as, "conceptualizing biology in terms of molecules and then applying informatics techniques to understand and organize the information associated with these molecules, on a large scale.

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  • Electrophoresis is defined as the transport of electrically charged particles in a direct current electric field. Electrophoretic separation is based on differential rates of migration in the bulk of the liquid phase and is not concerned with reactions occurring at the electrodes. In the early days, electrophoresis was carried out either in free solution or in the supporting media such as paper, cellulose acetate, starch, agarose, and polyacry lamide gel.

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  • Finally, promotion—what marketing is often stereotyped to mean—is how to spread the positive word about the product to influential people and potential customers. Surprisingly, promotion is a small part of a business analyst or product manager’s time (maybe 10–20%). So, marketing plans define much more than what the ads will look like or what promotional deals will be made. Also, note that the four Ps of marketing apply to almost anything. There is always a product (HR web site), a price (free), a placement (intranet), and a promotion (email) for it.

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  • If we really want to avoid climate change and conserve the ecosystems on which we all depend, it’s clear that we have to tackle both what we produce and consume. To progress this work, WWF believes that the UK government and retailers need to urgently develop and promote eating habits based on a sustainable diet if we are to address climate change, protect ecosystems and start to reverse the impacts of poor nutritional choices and promotions on people’s health.

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  • The world is changing quickly, and our models of learning, communicating, and acting must change accordingly. Throughout society we must rethink basic notions of how we define and accomplish our goals in a complex and changing environment, including how we prepare ourselves for professional careers. This book is an effort in that direction for students in natural resource management. It is a response to some of the challenges we perceive students will face in the early twenty-first century, and it is a practice field on which they may begin to develop their skills....

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  • Note that the linear relationship between (logged) emissions and (logged) population implies that we estimate the direct effect of population on emissions only, but not the indirect effects that might work via the impact of population on either A or T. This has been critically noted by a number of participants in the ongoing discussion about the usefulness of IPAT (e.g., MacKellar, Lutz, Prinz & Goujon, 1995). Such complex inter- action effects are beyond what can be achieved in this paper and are left for future research.

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  • In the second part of the research, an interface framework was designed. Interactions between the driver and system  have been investigated and used to define information flows. Next, input and output channels have been defined,  indicating which information is presented to the user (output for a particular system state) and which information is  used as input.  For the resulting interface framework four concepts have been designed,  differing in feasibility and 'fanciness'.

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về y học được đăng trên tạp chí y học Wertheim cung cấp cho các bạn kiến thức về ngành y đề tài: Use of a population-based survey to determine incidence of AIDS-defining opportunistic illnesses among HIV-positive persons receiving medical care in the United States...

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  • Wetlands provide a special case in point. They are used by fisherfolk, hunters, charcoal makers, pastoralists and agriculturalists under traditional resource sharing regimes at different seasons, and also harbour a wide variety of fauna and flora. Ensuring compatibility among such a wide set of users poses special challenges. Conventional access rights are particularly hard to define, since water levels are not the same each year and patterns of flooding are erratic.

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  • Computer animation may be defined as a technique in which the illusion of movement is created by displaying on a screen, or recording on a recording device a series of individual states of a dynamic scene. Formally, any computer animation sequence may be defined as a set of objects characterized by state variables evolving over time. For example, a human character is normally characterized using its joint angles as state variables. To improve computer animation, attention needs to be devoted to the design of evolution laws [Magnenat Thalmann and Thalmann, 1985].

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  • Empirical research has found that highly profitable firms face a lower cost of equity funding (for example, Hail and Leuz (2006)). This work has not looked at banks. In the third column of Table 1, we use earnings (defined as net income over equity) to proxy for future profitability. We find that high profitability compresses the market beta. In other words, more profitable banks tend to be less correlated with the market return, facing therefore a lower risk premium.

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  • Population-based cancer registries are important resources for cancer epi- demiologists since they hold information on the distribution of cancer in well defined populations. This information may be analysed without the need for any additional data collection. Cancer site-specific incidence rates can be cal- culated and compared according to many different variables such as age, sex, country of birth, place of residence at the time of diagnosis, etc.

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  • For example, a decision must be taken on whether to include cases for which the most valid basis of diag- nosis is solely clinical. A decision should also be taken regarding cases registered on the basis of a death certificate only (DCO), for whom no information is available on the date of diagnosis of the cancer. The most usual practice is to omit these cases from the analysis, but if they repre- sent a large proportion of registrations, it may be better to present two survival analyses, one including DCO cases and another excluding them.

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