Xem 1-20 trên 143 kết quả Defining cases
  • The topic of the paper is the problem how to define case relations by semantic predicates. A general principle is outlined, which renders it possible to "calculate" case relations for a given representation of a (verb-)sememe by means of expressions. This principle is based on an assignment of case relations to primitive predicates and modification rules for nested expressions.

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  • The paper describes a progrmn which has been constructed to produce English strings from a case-labellea depenaency representation. The program uses an especially single and uniform control structure with a well defined separation of the different knowledge sources used during ge~,eration. Furthermore, the majority of t/le syst~n's knowledge is expressed in a declarative form, so in priciple the generator 's knowledge bases could be used for purposes other than gex,eration.

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  • Like paper-based signatures, digital signatures intend to respect a number of security assumptions. Methods of digital signature apposed by a single user have been defined and are widely used. But is it sufficient? What if a legal document requires witnesses and notarization, or a contract needs the signatures of several officers?This paper will first show the basics to understand digital signatures and how the a security properties of integrity, authentication, and non-repudiation are respected.

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  • Learning objectives in this chapter: Understand the purpose of defining test adequacy criteria, and their limitations; understand basic terminology of test selection and adequacy; know some sources of information commonly used to define adequacy criteria; understand how test selection and adequacy criteria are used.

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  • These components are generally the same whether one is assessing traditional or eCommerce opportunities. Generally, the development of the business case team requires that the business model already be defined to an appropriate level of detail (depends on stage of opportunity assessment). The team will need to understand the particulars of the business model in detail. The bulk of the team’s effort, however is in building the financial model and obtaining the data.

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  • Evolution of global technologies has prompted increasing complexity of applications developed in both, the industry and the scientific research fields. These complexities are generally attributed to nonlinearities, poorly defined dynamics and absence of apriori information about the systems. Imprecision, uncertainties and vagueness in information about the system are also playing vital roles in enhancing the complexity of application.

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  • The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), defined in RFC 1771, allows you to create loop free interdomain routing between autonomous systems. An autonomous system is a set of routers under a single technical administration. Routers in an AS can use multiple interior gateway protocols to exchange routing information inside the AS and an exterior gateway protocol to route packets outside the AS.

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  • Along which basic lines could an organization which plans to invest in knowledge management proceed? What general initiatives can be suggested for knowledge management? First, an array of knowledge management goals and strategies is presented taken from theoretical and empirical studies which are then related to each other in the light of what we call a strategic intervention into an organization’s way of handling knowledge. We then make the case for the integration of process orientation into a comprehensive multi-dimensional framework for knowledge management strategies.

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  • Information Systems are the software and hardware systems that support data‐ intensive applications. One of the most critical stages of an Information System development cycle is the System Design stage. During this stage the architecture, components, modules, interfaces and system data are defined and modeled in order to fulfill the respective requirements that the developed Information System should meet. For accomplishing this task a number...

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  • The Object Management Group (OMG) is an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and maintains computer-industry specifications for interoperable applications. To achieve this goal, the OMG specifies open standards for every aspect of distributed computing, from analysis and design through infrastructure to application objects and components defined on virtually every enterprise middleware platform. OMG’s membership roster includes virtually every large company in the computer industry, and hundreds of smaller ones.

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  • As indicated above, while YouthAIDS highlighted PSI’s ability to manage consumer brands, this same discipline had not been applied to the corporate “PSI brand.” PSI’s core audience was defined as those who influence resource decisions for public health investments in developing countries. As a result, PSI had focused its branding and outreach efforts with multi- and bi- lateral government donors. PSI had not been historically marketed to a broader audience and was not well-known to the general public.

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  • A primary purpose in creating this 3rd Edition is the addition of a stair design component. Over many years as a design studio teacher and critic, I have been regularly reminded of the significant difficulty that many students have in learning to design and draw stairs correctly. From a design perspective, stairs are among the more complex elements within buildings, particularly when there are multiple levels to be accommodated and/or complex building configurations to be considered.

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  • The issues related to non-market forest goods and services involve social and economic dimensions. Unlike market forest goods and services, non-market ones are not traditionally traded and their value is not defined by the market price. At the same time the access to non-market forest goods and services is largely unlimited and free in most of the EU Member States. These characteristics of non- market goods and services, combined with their growing importance and social demands, can lead to an un-sustainable management of these goods and services. ...

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  • The promoter who is able to plan well in advance so that he can define exactly what he wants and can give his designers adequate time to complete their work, will usually get best value for money. Acontractor who tenders for works that have been designed in all essentials and which are not subse- quently altered, will usually be able to give a good price and fast construction.

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  • • Problem: Emphasis is on assignments, not on people. As a department manager, you are accustomed to facing and overcoming a series of problems. The people working in your department are there on a permanent basis, meaning that their task assignments are usually fixed and well-defined. But as project manager, you face a temporary situation. Problems are unique to the project and nonrecurring in nature. Your team members will not have well-defined areas of responsibility unless you define them. Solution: Pick the right people, not just the right number.

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  • Given the range of content available to internet users at effectively zero cost compared with those available to purchase through established social networks, a rational, economic decision would be primarily to use the internet to obtain counterfeit digital goods. However, our data shows this is not the case, suggesting that purely economic approaches to the purchase of counterfeit goods have limited value in explaining consumption patterns. Further, accessing illegal content via the internet offers an element of anonymity to users.

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  • When a transaction ends with a ROLLBACK operation, a possible approach is to simply abort the transaction in all replicas without verifying if previously returned results were correct (e.g., this solution is adopted in [13]). In our system, this could be easily implemented by execut- ing a BFT operation that aborts the transaction in each replica. This approach does not lead to any inconsistency in the replicas as the database state is not modified.

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  • The Class Model in the UML is the main artefact produced to represent the logical structure of a software system. It captures the both the data requirements and the behaviour of objects within the model domain. The techniques for discovering and elaborating that model are outside the scope of this article, so we will assume the existence of a well designed class model that requires mapping onto a relational database. The class is the basic logical entity in the UML. It defines both the data and the behaviour of a structural unit.

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  • Technology is properly defined as any application of science to accomplish a function. The science can be leading edge or well established and the function can have high visibility or be significantly more mundane but it is all technology, and its exploitation is the foundation of all competitive advantage.

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  • Today, democratic public media systems in Europe, North America, and elsewhere face challenges on a number of fronts.

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