Ecology studies interactions among organisms and between organisms
and their environment in nature and is also concerned
with the effects that organisms have on the inanimate environment.
It is concerned with not only what kind of air a species
must have but also what effect that species has on the air.
This book is not an elementary ecology textbook. A textbook
would be longer and more didactic.
Microbes produce an extraordinary array of microbial defense systems. These
include broad-spectrum classical antibiotics, metabolic byproducts, such as
the lactic acids produced by lactobacilli, lytic agents such as lysozymes,
numerous types of protein exotoxins, and bacteriocins, which are loosely
defined as biologically active protein moieties with a bacteriocidal mode of
The Fuzzy Set Theory developed by L. Zadeh (Zadeh 1965) as a possible way to
handle uncertainty is particularly useful for the representation of vague expert
knowledge and processing uncertain or imprecise information. The Fuzzy Set
Theory is based on an extension of the classical meaning of the term "set" and
formulates specific logical and arithmetical operations for processing information
defined in the form of fuzzy sets and fuzzy rules.
From before the time Raven stole the sun and shed light on the world below,
the Gitxaal /
a people have lived in their territories along the north coast of
British Columbia. Gitxaal /
a laws (Ayaawk) and history (Adaawk) describe in
precise detail the relationships of trust, honor, and respect that are appro-
priate for the well-being and continuance of the people and, as important-
ly, define the rights of ownership over land, sea, and resources within the
Define ecological biochemistry. • Explain biochemical adaptation and the roles of secondary compounds. • Describe detoxification and the primary metabolic pathways in plants and animals. • Explain the key processes and factors involved in biotransformation & biodegradation. • Explain the concepts of sequestration, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification. • Contrast different forms of ecological biochemical interaction.
Ergonomics, also known as Human Factors, is a recent scientific discipline, curiously
with a well‐defined and official date and place of birth, July 12, 1949, in England.
However the term Ergonomics, was proposed in 1857, by the Polish philosopher and
naturalist Wojciech Jastrzebowski and fell into oblivion for nearly a century. The word
Ergonomics results from joining the Greek words ergon meaning ʺworkʺ and nomos
meaning ʺnatural lawsʺ, and conveys the concern of understanding the relationships
between humans and their work environment....
The long-term approach to achieving protection is “ecological separation.” A true ecological
separation is defined as no inter-basin transfer of aquatic organisms via the Chicago Waterway
System at any time – 100% effectiveness. Ecological separation prohibits the movement or interbasin
transfer of aquatic organisms between the Mississippi and Great Lakes basins via the CWS.
Once established, the impacts of invasive species on ecosystem health are permanent and
This book offers an interdisciplinary view of the biophysical issues related to climate change. Climate change is a phenomenon by which the long-term averages of weather events (i.e. temperature, precipitation, wind speed, etc.) that define the climate of a region are not constant but change over time. There have been a series of past periods of climatic change, registered in historical or paleoecological records.
As we were at pains to point out in the companion volume to this monograph,
entitled Complexity in Chemistry: Introduction and Fundamentals,
complexity is to be encountered just about everywhere. All that is needed
for us to see it is a suitably trained eye and it then appears almost magically
in all manner of guises. Because of its ubiquity, complexity has been and
currently still is being defined in a number of different ways. Some of these
definitions have led us to major and powerful new insights.
Justice is no mere abstraction. Finding justice and doing justice is a continuous
human task. It is the activity which in any society gives politics and the law their
purpose. The activity has both a material and a discursive dimension. It has to do
with what we are, what we do and what we say. What we are and do is materially
real. How we relate to others is discursively real, a matter of communicated
explanations via words. The struggle for justice is about how we explain the basis
of a good and proper relationship between ourselves and others.
Chapter 53 - Population ecology. In this chapter, you should now be able to: Define and distinguish between the following sets of terms: density and dispersion; clumped dispersion, uniform dispersion, and random dispersion; life table and reproductive table; Type I, Type II, and Type III survivorship curves; semelparity and iteroparity; r-selected populations and K-selected populations. This chapter also explain how ecologists may estimate the density of a species, explain how limited resources and trade-offs may affect life histories,...
Chapter 56 - Conservation biology and restoration ecology. This chapter distinguish between conservation biology and restoration biology, list the three major threats to biodiversity and give an example of each, define and compare the small-population approach and the declining-population approach, distinguish between the total population size and the effective population size,...
CHAPTER 1: BASIC UNITS OF ECOLOGY
After studying this chapter, you should be able to:
1. Define environment.
2. Define an ecosystem.
3. Identify the components of the biosphere.
4. Describe the living and nonliving components of the environment.
5. Explain that bacteria and fungi are agents of decay.
6. Discuss the process of photosynthesis.
7. Enumerate the important factors that affect the growth of plants and the survival of animals.
race n. [F. race; member of the same stock or lineage] A population or aggregate of populations inhabiting a defined geographical and/or ecological region possessing characteristic phenotypic and gene frequencies or features
In 2005, the Royal College of Physicians (RCP), UK, defined well-being as ‘a holistic notion of
achieving a state of health, comfort and happiness’ (RCP, 2005). Other societies have however for
a very long time throughout the history of Western society addressed the holistic aspects of
health and the concept of ‘feeling’ or of ‘being well’.
Spatial analysis by way of weighted overlay was used to determine possible locations
where the Boran cattle may strive. By considering elevation and annual rainfall data
within the Dry Kolla agro-ecological zone of Ethiopia, one could extract a refined
suitability map for the Boran. Within the Dry Kolla ‘mask’, one would extract the two
variables or layers (elevation and rainfall) and conduct a simple statistical description
by which the means and standard deviations are determined.
Chapter 2 - Development in families. This chapter provides knowledge of development in families. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Defining families, the influential ecology of the family, discourses of family, family as committed relationship,...and other contents.
This chapter provides knowledge of development in families. In this chapter, the following content will be discussed: Defining families, the influential ecology of the family, discourses of family, family as committed relationship,...and other contents.
Chapter 10 - Ecology and sustainable development in global business. In this chapter, you learned to: Understanding how business and society interact within the natural environment; defining sustainable development; assessing the major threats to the earth’s ecosystem; recognizing the ways in which population growth, inequality, and economic development interact with the world’s ecological crisis;...