Definition and epidemiology

Xem 1-20 trên 33 kết quả Definition and epidemiology
  • Sepsis has been defined as a serious condition in which there is a systemic inflammation secondary to an infectious process. This can progress to a level at which it results in a complex disorder, leading to multiple organ failure and eventually death. Although it has been well recognized as one of the top killers worldwide, its incidence continues to rise dramatically with some studies showing approximately 1,400 daily deaths. Some experts usually consider sepsis as one of the most challenging conditions because of its multiple presentations and the variety of its complications. ...

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  • This chapter introduces the history, definitional and semantic issues, spectrum and general importance of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of metabolic liver disease in which fatty change (steatosis) is associated with lobular inflammation, hepatocyte injury and/or hepatic fibrosis. It comprises a pathogenic link in the chain of NAFLD that extends from bland steatosis to some cases of ‘cryptogenic cirrhosis’.

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  • The annual economic burden to society may exceed $20 billion. Acute infectious diarrhea remains one of the most common causes of mortality in developing countries, particularly among children, accounting for 2–3 million deaths per year. Constipation, by contrast, is rarely associated with mortality and is exceedingly common in developed countries, leading to frequent self-medication and, in a third of those, to medical consultation.

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  • Most of the epidemiological studies which compared breast cancer risk of active smokers to women who were not smokers (regardless of their passive smoke exposure) have found no association of smoking and breast cancer risk. But several studies found that women who smoked had a decreased breast cancer risk. It is not uncommon for epidemiological studies to come to different assessments of health risk, especially when, as in these studies, the associated risk is not large.

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  • Cute pelvic pain is a common presenting com-plaint in women. The diagnosis of pelvic pain in women can be challenging because many symp-toms and signs are insensitive and unspecific. Prompt diagnosis and effective management pre-vent complications and may help preserve fertility .

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  • Document introduction of content: Definition, introduction and key points, disease burden and epidemiology, causes of dysphagia, clinical diagnosis, treatment options, references, useful web sites and guidelines.

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  • NTC’s Pocket Dictionary of Words and Phrases is for persons who are seeking to improve their ability to speak, read, write, and understand American English. It is a small, portable dictionary that will help learners with spelling, pronunciation, parts of speech, meaning, irregular forms, and the appropriate use of 12,000 common words and phrases. This dictionary defines words using the smallest possible vocabulary, but when it is necessary, additional words are used to define difficult concepts.

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  • The inevitability of a disease sounds a clarion for its prevention, or at least its control. Understanding its pathophysiology is essential to that process. For osteoarthritis, preconceived notions and mythology must be transcended to allow identification of its essentials. The first step was to establish a scientific basis for its recognition. Sorting associated phenomenon allowed identification of those which are non-diagnostic, and one major finding which is pathognomonic: the joint osteophyte.

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  • The closing years of the 19th century and the start of the 20th century witnessed the emergence of microbiology and immunology as discrete scientific disciplines, and in the work of Roux and Yersin, perhaps the first benefits of their synergy—immunotherapy against bacterial infection. As we advance into the new millennium, microbiology and immunology again offer a conceptual leap forward as antibody phage display gains increasing acceptance as the definitive technology for monoclonal production and unleashes new opportunities in immunotherapy, drug discovery, and functional genomics....

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  • The analysis is primary based on the national American Housing Survey (AHS) data for the period 1995 through 2003. In some cases, the research was extended to include the national level AHS data for 1985 onwards. One of the challenges to this effort is how to define elderly housing consumption. As will be discussed in the literature summary below, there are a number of standard assumptions but several of these will merit a brief discussion prior to our highlighting the different research.

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  • In Latin America, the rates of institutionalization of older people range from 1% to 4%. Institutional care is no longer considered unacceptable for an older person but is seen as an alternative for families. The government-sponsored asilos, large institutions resembling the early English workhouses, have been converted into smaller facilities with professional staff from many disciplines. Other homes are operated by religious communities of immigrant origin.

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  • Household and individual variables were collected using an extensive household survey that includes information on household structure, household consumption, expenditure, income, health indicators and educational attendance. The survey was conducted between June and October of 2002. In this subsection, we will comment on the main variables used in the analysis. Table 1 gives the descriptive statistics and definitions of the variables. Though the survey was administered to 122 municipalities, we can only have 102 in our estimating sample.

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  • The definition of an insurance contract distinguishes insurance contracts that are subject to IFRS 4 from those contracts that are subject to IAS 39. Some contracts, however, contain both an insurance component and a deposit component. The deposit component of an insurance contract is defined as a contractual component that is not accounted for as a financial instrument under IAS 39, but that would be within the scope of IAS 39 if it were a separate instrument.

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  • The diagnoses in clinical medicine of a patient or group in the population as deviating from the medical definition of normal. In Foucault’s sociology the proposition is that concepts of normality are constructed by state and professional healing and helping occupations to facilitate the regulation of the population.

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  • On behalf of the Research Society on Alcoholism, I am pleased to introduce this thirteenth volume of Recent Developments in Alcoholism about alcohol and violence. Current concepts are presented in well-organized sections that focus on epidemiology, neurobiology, psychology, and family issues. It is becoming increasingly clear that age, gender, socioeconomic circumstances, and genetics affect aggressive behavior and vulnerability to alcoholism. This volume contains up-to-date discussions of these issues.

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  • The mission of the International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL) is to ensure all students have access to a world-class education and quality online learning opportunities that prepare them for a lifetime of success. The Online Learning Definitions Project is designed to provide states, districts, online programs, and other organizations with a set of definitions related to online and blended learning in order to develop policy, practice, and an understanding of and within the field.

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  • Applied Radiological Anatomy for Medical Students is the definitive atlas of human anatomy, utilizing the complete range of imaging modalities to describe normal anatomy and radiological findings. Initial chapters describe all imaging techniques and introduce the principles of image interpretation. These are followed by comprehensive sections on each antomical region. Hundreds of high-quality radiographs, MRI, CT and ultrasound images are included, complemented by concise, focused text.

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  • Statistical methods for survival data analysis have continued to flourish in the last two decades. Applications of the methods have been widened from their historical use in cancer and reliability research to business, criminology, epidemiology, and social and behavioral sciences. The third edition of Statistical Methods for Survival Data Analysis is intended to provide a comprehensive introduction of the most commonly used methods for analyzing survival data. It begins with basic definitions and interpretations of survival functions....

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  • From ‘Abortion rate’ to ‘Zygosity determination’, this accessible introduction to the terminology of medical statistics describes more than 1500 terms, all clearly explained, illustrated and defined in non-technical language, without any mathematical formulae!With the majority of terms revised and updated and the addition of more than 100 brand new definitions, this new edition will enable medical students to quickly grasp the meaning of any of the statistical terms they encounter when reading the medical literature....

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  • Epidemiological studies about contagious diseases have two very specific characteristics. The first refers to the object, which is only a source of damage. The second relates to the goals, which aim to determine the relationship between cause and effect, i.e., between exposure and disease. So, even with multifactorial determinants, it's an unidimensional evaluation. Therefore, in a evaluation between exposed and unexposed, the concept of risk approaches the definition of probability.

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