Definition of context

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  • Since this book first came out in 1995 to gratifying reviews, the ante has gone up considerably for it and related enterprises. For a start, practically all the material it covers is available on the web; secondly, encyclopaediae of cognitive science (here, CS) are beginning to proliferate. This makes the job of synthesis ever more important. Readers looking for new material would be better rewarded by this book’s companion volume Being Human (nothing to do with the Robin Williams movie!).

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  • One of the major problems when translating from Japanese into a European language such as German or English is to determine definiteness of noun phrases in order to choose the correct determiner in the target language. Even though in Japanese, noun phrase reference is said to depend in large parts on the discourse context, we show that in many cases there also exist linguistic markers for definiteness.

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  • Valiant showed that Boolean matrix multiplication (BMM) can be used for CFG parsing. We prove a dual result: CFG parsers running in time O([Gl[w[3-e) on a grammar G and a string w can be used to multiply m x m Boolean matrices in time O(m3-e/3). In the process we also provide a formal definition of parsing motivated by an informal notion due to Lang. Our result establishes one of the first limitations on general CFG parsing: a fast, practical CFG parser would yield a fast, practical BMM algorithm, which is not believed to exist. 1 Introduction The standard method...

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  • 6 Unit One SCIENCE Science (Latin scientia, from scire, “to know”), is the term which is used, in its broadest meaning to denote systematized knowledge in any field, but applied usually to the organization of objectively verifiable sense experience. The pursuit of knowledge in this context is known as pure science, to distinguish it from applied science, which is the search for practical uses of scientific knowledge, and from technology, through which applications are realized. Knowledge of nature originally was largely an undifferentiated observation and interrelation of experiences.

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  • Previously, after completing an engineering degree in India, then working as a project manager in the Middle East, George had decided he needed some formal qualifications to back up his practical skills. He focused on an MBA specialising in project management but researched his options thoroughly before choosing Deakin. ‘I was quite fascinated by Australia as the land of opportunity, and I looked at university ratings,’ he says. I thought Deakin was one of the most progressive and its MBA has been around for about 20 years. It was definitely the place to be.

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  • Bearing the foregoing in mind, lived experiences have been carefully selected and synchronised with generic ideas and principles of project management. By starting with the evolution of project management, the objective was to locate the discipline in its historical context, thus creating awareness to the project manager that he/she will be practising within a community of professionals. This is followed by the definition of the concept of project, which concomitantly elucidates related terms to which the project manager will find recourse from time-to-time.

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  • The concept of versioning as used herein has nothing in common with the concept as used by software developers. In our research, versioning refers to the marketing of a GI service in different quality versions for different prices in order to satisfy different customers with different willingness to pay (Shapiro and Varian 1998 and 1999, Varian 2000). But every user who requests the same GI service quality pays the same price. This approach is also referred to as vertical differentiation or price- quality discrimination.

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  • .Richard K. Lenz Post-LBO Development .GABLER RESEARCH Entrepreneurial and Financial Studies Herausgeber: Professor Dr. Dr. Ann-Kristin Achleitner und Professor Dr. Christoph Kaserer Die Schriftenreihe präsentiert aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse aus dem Gebiet der Entrepreneurial und Corporate Finance. Sie greift an der Schnittstelle von Wissenschaft und Praxis innovative Fragestellungen der Unternehmensfinanzierung auf. This series presents research results from the fields of entrepreneurial and corporate finance.

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  • It has long been realized that while absolute measures of firm growth lead to a bias towards large firms, relative growth measures lead to a bias towards small firms (Acs et al., 2008; Schreyer, 2000). Due to the wide-spread use of the absolute and relative measures, we use these two measures for all growth indicators in the empirical analysis. We also apply the so- called composite index, i.e., the combination of employment growth measured in absolute and relative numbers, as growth measurement in order to relate to previous literature (see table 1).

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  • In this opening chapter, we outline some of the most influential (and most contested) definitions of health, and approaches to health promotion. Although some success has been claimed for health promotion interventions, in general the results to date have been modest: for example, safer sex campaigns in preventing HIV infection among gay men. In other areas efforts have been remarkably disappointing, notably in preventing smoking uptake among adolescents. ‘Health promotion’ is a term which has been applied to a very wide range of activities performed in many and diverse contexts....

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  • This paper gives an account of the role tense plays in the listener's reconstruction of the events and situations a speaker has chosen to describe. Several new ideas are presented: (a) that tense is better viewed by analogy with definite NPs than with pronouns; (b) that a narrative has a temporal focus that grounds the context-dependency of tense; and (c) that focus management heuristics can be used to track the movement of temporal focus. 1

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  • The paper examines some of the characteristic features of natural language interaction with a database system and its implications for the processing of singular definite descriptions. Some proposals are made for assessing the uniqueness claim of the singular definite article in the context of retrieval from a relational database. Other standard assumptions such as the extensional evaluation and referent evaluation exclusively in the database - rather than within the discourse model - are critically examined.

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  • ome proposals are made for assessing the uniqueness claim of the singular definite article in the context of retrieval from a relational database. Other standard assumptions such as the extensional evaluation and referent evaluation exclusively in the database - rather than within the discourse model - are critically examined.

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  • Chapter 6 "Financial analysis in operations management", after studying this chapter you will be able to: Introduce various cost definitions and demonstrate how they are applied in operations management; demonstrate how break-even analysis is used within an operations management context; demonstrate how concepts of obsolescence, depreciation, and taxes impact the decision-making process with an operations management context;...

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  • On the first page of each lesson, you will see a list of 12 words. For each word you will see the definition of the word and two sentences using the word in context. Some suffixes tell you whether a word is a noun, a verb, an adjective, or an adverb. You can leam to recognize these different suffixes. They will help you understand the meanings of new words.

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  • This book is a revised and updated edition of Asking Questions: A Practical Guide to Questionnaire Design, first published in 1982. It focuses on the type of question asking that social science researchers and market researchers use in structured questionnaires or interviews. Many of the principles of effective formalized questioning we focus on in this book are useful in other contexts. They are useful in informal or semistructured interviews, in administering printed questionnaires in testing rooms, and in experimental studies involving participant evaluations or responses....

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  • The general analytical approach of this report is to consider FMIs as multilateral systems, inclusive of their participants, as stated in the definition of FMI. In market parlance, however, the term FMI may be used to refer only to a legal or functional entity that is set up to carry out centralised, multilateral payment, clearing, settlement, or recording activities and, in some contexts, may exclude the participants that use the system. This difference in terminology or usage may introduce ambiguity at certain points in the report.

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  • Since many social businesses are also SMEs, measures that facilitate access to finance for SMEs could also help social businesses. In this context, of notable importance are the support and regulatory frameworks for venture capital, in particular the steps to be taken to develop a EU passport for Venture Capital funds. The extent to which work on establishing such a passport might aid social businesses is central in considering the effectiveness and efficiency of the options identified in this impact assessment.

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  • Since such a fund is determined according to a pre-ranking of all fund alphas, a correct inference about its alpha must take into account the entire cross-section of the fund alphas3. In this context, they advocate to use a bootstrap procedure, and conclude that they account for luck in the sense that they correctly compute the p-values of the individual funds4. This definition of luck is not related to the issue of multiple testing investigated in this paper.

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  • A popular definition of workload is given by O’Donnell and Eggmeir, which states that “The term workload refers to that portion of the operator’s limited capacity actually required to perform a particular task” [1]. In the vehicle environment, the “particular task” refers to both the vehicle control, which is the primary task, and other secondary activities such as listening to the radio. Three major types of driver workload are usually studied, namely, visual, manual, and cognitive.

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