Definition of stack

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  • Contiguous Stack Applications of Stack .Linear List Concepts LIFO (Stack) .Stack ADT DEFINITION: A Stack of elements of type T is a finite sequence of elements of T, in which all insertions and deletions are restricted to one end, called the top. Stack is a Last In - First Out (LIFO) data structure. Basic operations: • Construct a stack, leaving it empty. • Push an element. • Pop an element. • Top an element.

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  • Reversing data items Ex.: Reverse a list. Convert Decimal to Binary. Brackets Parse. Infix to Postfix Transformation. Evaluate a Postfix Expression. Parsing Ex.: Ex.: Postponement of processing data items Backtracking Ex.: Goal Seeking Problem. Knight’s Tour. Exiting a Maze. Eight Queens Problem. .Reverse a list PROBLEM: Read n numbers, print the list in reverse order. Algorithm ReverseList Pre User supplies numbers. Post The numbers are printed in reverse order. Uses Stack ADT. 1. loop (stack is not full and there is more number) 1. read a number 2.

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  • We normally use the decimal (denary). system, also called base 10. l There are 10 different symbols .(digits). l 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 l To count higher than nine we re-use the symbols by putting them in columns. l The value of aComputers use the binary system, also called base 2 l There are two different symbols (digits) l 0, 1 l To count higher than one we re-use the symbols by putting them in columns l The value of a symbol depends on its position symbol depends on its position....

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  • AVL Tree is: • A Binary Search Tree, • in which the heights of the left and right subtrees of the root differ by at most 1, and • the left and right subtrees are again AVL trees. The name comes from the discoverers of this method, G.M.Adel'son-Vel'skii and E.M.Landis. The method dates from 1962. .Balance factor Balance factor: • left_higher: HL = HR + 1 • equal_height: • right_higher:

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  • Binary Heap. Min-heap. Max-heap. Efficient implementation of heap ADT: use of array Basic heap algorithms: ReheapUp, ReheapDown, Insert Heap, Delete Heap, Built Heap d-heaps Heap Applications: Select Algorithm Priority Queues Heap sort Advanced implementations of heaps: use of pointers Leftist heap Skew heap Binomial queues

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  • A Graph G consists of a set V, whose members are called the vertices of G, together with a set E of pairs of distinct vertices from V. • The pairs in E are called the edges of G. • If the pairs are unordered, G is called an undirected graph or a graph. Otherwise, G is called a directed graph or a digraph. • Two vertices in an undirected graph are called adjacent if there is an edge from the first to the second.

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  • Sorting Divice-andConquer •Natural Merge •Balanced Merge •Polyphase Merge •Insertion •Shell •Selection •Heap •Bubble •Quick •Quick •Merge

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  • Lexicographic Search Trees: Tries Multiway Trees B-Tree, B*-Tree, B+-Tree Red-Black Trees (BST and B-Tree) 2-d Tree, k-d Tree 1 .Basic Concepts 2 .Basic Concepts 3 .Trees

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  • Value Type's Objectives is Discuss concept of value types (efficiency, memory management, value semantics, boxing, unboxing, simple types); introduce structvalue type (definition, use, advantages, limitations).

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