Those students who are admitted to the CSU and have not demonstrated proficiency in English
or math in their senior year of high school take the English Placement Test (EPT) and the Entry
Level Math Test (ELM) as a way of ensuring they are placed in the appropriate classes upon
enrollment in the university. All campuses are committed to implementing effective practices to
guide and support first time freshman in attaining college level proficiency.
"Is Six Sigma the exclusive domain of manufacturing and service operations, or can excellence be mandated (and achieved) throughout an entire organization? This refreshing book reveals how to apply the legendary quality assurance program across all departments and processes, creating a permanent, company-wide Six Sigma culture. Author Alan Larson, a Motorola veteran, has created a simple and practical Continuous Improvement model, and offers a strategy for managing the change to Six Sigma-driven operations and philosophy.
We investigate a number of simple methods for improving the word-alignment accuracy of IBM Model 1. We demonstrate reduction in alignment error rate of approximately 30% resulting from (1) giving extra weight to the probability of alignment to the null word, (2) smoothing probability estimates for rare words, and (3) using a simple heuristic estimation method to initialize, or replace, EM training of model parameters.
Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA) models have been shown to provide a better model for capturing polysemy and synonymy than Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA). However, the parameters of a PLSA model are trained using the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm, and as a result, the trained model is dependent on the initialization values so that performance can be highly variable. In this paper we present a method for using LSA analysis to initialize a PLSA model.
To address the parse error issue for tree-tostring translation, this paper proposes a similarity-based decoding generation (SDG) solution by reconstructing similar source parse trees for decoding at the decoding time instead of taking multiple source parse trees as input for decoding. Experiments on Chinese-English translation demonstrated that our approach can achieve a significant improvement over the standard method, and has little impact on decoding speed in practice.
We demonstrate that transformation-based learning can be used to correct noisy speech recognition transcripts in the lecture domain with an average word error rate reduction of 12.9%. Our method is distinguished from earlier related work by its robustness to small amounts of training data, and its resulting efﬁciency, in spite of its use of true word error rate computations as a rule scoring function.
Information extraction systems incorporate multiple stages of linguistic analysis. Although errors are typically compounded from stage to stage, it is possible to reduce the errors in one stage by harnessing the results of the other stages. We demonstrate this by using the results of coreference analysis and relation extraction to reduce the errors produced by a Chinese name tagger. We use an N-best approach to generate multiple hypotheses and have them re-ranked by subsequent stages of processing.
Knowledge of the anaphoricity of a noun phrase might be proﬁtably exploited by a coreference system to bypass the resolution of non-anaphoric noun phrases. Perhaps surprisingly, recent attempts to incorporate automatically acquired anaphoricity information into coreference systems, however, have led to the degradation in resolution performance. This paper examines several key issues in computing and using anaphoricity information to improve learning-based coreference systems. In particular, we present a new corpus-based approach to anaphoricity determination.
Several approaches have been described for the automatic unsupervised acquisition of patterns for information extraction. Each approach is based on a particular model for the patterns to be acquired, such as a predicate-argument structure or a dependency chain. The effect of these alternative models has not been previously studied. In this paper, we compare the prior models and introduce a new model, the Subtree model, based on arbitrary subtrees of dependency trees.
We describe an approach to improve the bilingual cooccurrence dictionary that is used for word alignment, and evaluate the improved dictionary using a version of the Competitive Linking algorithm. We demonstrate a problem faced by the Competitive Linking algorithm and present an approach to ameliorate it. In particular, we rebuild the bilingual dictionary by clustering similar words in a language and assigning them a higher cooccurrence score with a given word in the other language than each single word would have otherwise.
The current high-stakes accountability environment brought on by the federal No Child Left Behind Act places great pressure on school districts to demonstrate success by meeting yearly progress goals for student achievement and eventually demonstrating that all students achieve at high standards. Many urban school districts, in particular, face great challenges in meeting these goals. This study analyzes three urban districts
Once released, treebanks tend to remain unchanged despite any shortcomings in their depth of linguistic analysis or coverage of speciﬁc phenomena. Instead, separate resources are created to address such problems. In this paper we show how to improve the quality of a treebank, by integrating resources and implementing improved analyses for speciﬁc constructions.
For many years, statistical machine translation relied on generative models to provide bilingual word alignments. In 2005, several independent efforts showed that discriminative models could be used to enhance or replace the standard generative approach. Building on this work, we demonstrate substantial improvement in word-alignment accuracy, partly though improved training methods, but predominantly through selection of more and better features. Our best model produces the lowest alignment error rate yet reported on Canadian Hansards bilingual data. ...
This paper demonstrates a conceptually simple but effective method of increasing the accuracy of QA systems on factoid-style questions. We define the notion of an inverted question, and show that by requiring that the answers to the original and inverted questions be mutually consistent, incorrect answers get demoted in confidence and correct ones promoted. Additionally, we show that lack of validation can be used to assert no-answer (nil) conditions.
Several NLP tasks are characterized by asymmetric data where one class label NONE, signifying the absence of any structure (named entity, coreference, relation, etc.) dominates all other classes. Classiﬁers built on such data typically have a higher precision and a lower recall and tend to overproduce the NONE class. We present a novel scheme for voting among a committee of classiﬁers that can signiﬁcantly boost the recall in such situations.
In the Listening test, you will be asked to demonstrate how well you understand spoken
English. The entire Listening test will last approximately 45 minutes. There are four parts, and
directions are given for each part. You must mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.
Do not write your answers in your test book.
In the fourth chapter of this section, the authors present a modification of the Crank-
Nicholson scheme for two-dimensional fluid mechanical, heat and mass transfer
problems. The modification divides the nodal points into groups of four. The method
is applicable to parallel computing, which is increasing in importance as problems
become more computationally intensive. Computational experiments demonstrate
improved convergence rates over previous methods.
Protected cropping provides vegetable growers with an opportunity to enhance product
quality and improve food safety. The overall objective of this project was to provide
Vietnamese scientists and extension specialists with the training and tools to implement
and foster regionally feasible improvements to current vegetable production practices and
supply chains. This was achieved through: 1) greenhouse replicated experiments and
demonstration trials in Northern, Central and Southern Vietnam; 2) four in-country
workshops and 3) two Australian study tours for research and extension personnel.
Improving health outcomes through strengthened platforms and systems is at the core of the Initiative. This vision
of sustainable progress is only possible thanks to the demonstrable improvements in the health sector over the past
decade. Less than ten years ago, neither the woman nor her two children in our story would have stood a chance of
survival. At that time, a woman in her condition could not have hoped to access life-sustaining HIV treatment, let alone
the services that would prevent her child from being infected by HIV.
It is generally understood that the length of the fermentation process has an effect on the quality attributes of cocoa.
Properties affected include bark content, pH, titrable acidity (TA), test results and the properties cutting taste. it
also been demonstrated that soaking seeds in water, after fermentation, resulting in higher dry cocoa
percentage of brown seeds, bark less content and improved flavor characteristics, (Hollywood, NW 1997).
This test is done to prove whether the effects of fermentation time and soak application
Vietnam to cocoa....