Densities of solids

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  • This book is dedicated to thermoset resins, an important class of polymer materials. Unlike thermoplastics, thermoset resins are characterised by a curing reaction, which converts the low molecular weight liquid resins (easy to process) into solid three- dimensional network structures. The main advantage of a thermoset over a thermoplastic is that a wide range of properties can be achieved by simply adjusting the crosslink density of the thermoset network...

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  • Science is a way of making and using observations. The ap- plications of science have played a central role in the ad- vancement of civilization.The Latin origin of the word science (scire) can be translated as “to know.” While some people might think of scientific conclusions as unchanging facts, our understanding is never complete. As the understanding of nature grows, old ideas that no longer seem to fit our obser- vations are discarded. The so-called facts of science are often temporary while the methods of science (observation and analysis) are permanent....

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  • the generation of ultrashort laser pulses. Beginning with mode-locking of glass lasers in the 1960s, the development of dye lasers brought the pulse width down from picoseconds to femtoseconds. The breakthrough in solid state laser pulse generation provided the current reliable table-top laser systems capable of average power of about 1 watt, and peak power density of easily watts per square centimeter, with pulse widths in the range of four to eight femtoseconds.

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  • Introduction: It may seem something of a truism to describe an element as unique, but hydrogen is certainly one of the more unusual elements in the periodic table. It is the lightest element and consists of only a proton and an electron and is thus the only element not to contain a neutron in its main isotope (1H). In its stable molecular form (H2), it is also the least dense and the most abundant in the universe. Perhaps surprisingly, given that its low density results in gaseous hydrogen being almost nonexistent in the Earth’s lower atmosphere, it is also the...

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  • The enzymatic kinetics of glycoside hydrolase family 7 cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) towards highly crystalline celluloses at the solid–liquid interface was evaluated by applying the novel concept of surface density (q) of the enzyme, which is defined as the amount of adsorbed enzyme divided by the maximum amount of adsorbed enzyme.

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  • Adsorption occurs whenever a solid surface is exposed to a gas or liquid: it is defined as the enrichment of material or increase in the density of the fluid in the vicinity of an interface. Under certain conditions, there is an appreciable enhancement in the concentration of a particular component and the overall effect is then dependent on the extent of the interfacial area. For this reason, all industrial adsorbents have large specific surface areas (generally well in excess of 100mZg-I) and are therefore highly porous or composed of very fine particles...

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  • Unprecedented growth in the telecommunications industry has driven wide-spread deployment of optical fiber over the past few years. As a result, many service providers are finding that their existing fiber frames and troughs are overflowing with large masses of optical fiber patch cords. In addition, the rapid deployment of SONET/SDH, fiber in the loop and video initiatives has created the demand for increased termination density at the fiber distributing frame.

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  • Brillouin scattering was discovered in 1922 by Louis Brillouin [1]. It is one of a number of characteristic scattering phenomena that occur when light interacts with solid, liquid or gaseous media and corresponds to the scattering of light from thermally-induced acoustical waves (propagating pressure/density waves) present in media at all temperatures. At normal light levels the amount of scattering is small. The characteristics of the scattering can offer interesting information about the properties of the medium (temperature, pressure) and form the basis for remote fibre sensor devices.

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  • Radar cross section is the measure of a target's ability to reflect radar signals in the direction of the radar receiver, i.e. it is a measure of the ratio of backscatter power per steradian (unit solid angle) in the direction of the radar (from the target) to the power density that is intercepted by the target.

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  • Introduction: The electrolyte solution is a major component of all battery systems and as such will greatly influence energy densities (thermodynamic properties such as Gibbs energy, enthalpy, and ionic activity) and power densities (nonthermodynamic properties such as viscosity, conductivity, and transference). The electrolyte solution consists of a liquid or solid phase containing at least one component, e.g., water, which is called the solvent, and an ionizable substance, e.g., a salt or an acid, which is called the electrolyte. ...

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  • 6 Ecological Engineering for Solid Waste Management Humans generate solid wastes as by-products from all of their activities. Disposing of these solid wastes has become a challenge, especially as population densities have grown.

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