Density quantum

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  • Classical physics breaks down to the level of atoms and molecules. This was made possible by the invention of a new apparatus that enabled the introduction of measurements in microscopic area of physics. There were two revolutions in the way we viewed the physical world in the twentieth century: relativity and quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics was born in 1924, through the work of Einstein, Rutherford and Bohr, Schrödinger and Heisenberg, Born, Dirac, and many others. The principles of quantum mechanics that were discovered then are the same as we know them today....

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  • The density matrix offers an effective technique for dealing statistically with a system consisting of many electrons using the quantum theory for an electron. Amixed state consisting of a statistical distribution of various quantum states can be specified by a set of probabilities pj with which the electron is found in a quantum state j ji.

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  • A new type of semiconductor laser is studied, in which injected carriers in the active region are quantum mechanically confined in localized finite self-assembled wire-like quantumdash (Qdash) structures that are varied in sizes and compositions. Effects of such carrier distribution and quasi three-dimensional density of states contribute to a quasisupercontinuum interband lasing characteristics, which is a new laser design platform as compared to continuous broad emission spectrum generated by nonlinear media pumped with ultrashort laser pulse....

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  • This book is a collection of some of the invited talks presented at the international meeting held at the Max Planck Institut fiir Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden, Germany during August 6-30, 2001, on the rapidly developing field of nanoscale science and bio-electronics ( Semiconductor physics has experienced unprecedented developments over the second half of the twentieth century. The exponential growth in microelectronic processing power and the size of dynamic memories has been achieved by significant downscahng of the minimum feature size.

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Selective area epitaxy of ultra-high density InGaN quantum dots by diblock copolymer lithography

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  • Tuyển tập các báo cáo nghiên cứu về lâm nghiệp được đăng trên tạp chí lâm nghiệp Original article đề tài: Photosynthetic response quantum flux density...

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  • Tuyển tập báo cáo các nghiên cứu khoa học quốc tế ngành hóa học dành cho các bạn yêu hóa học tham khảo đề tài: Temperature and electron density dependence of spin relaxation in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well

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  • Chemical reactions take place due to the redistribution of electron density among the reacting partners. Focusing on changes in electron density, which accompany the breaking and forming of chemical bonds, instead of the changes in the wave function accompanying them, allows us to use the ‘‘classical’’ three-dimensional language. Conceptual density functional theory (DFT) quantifies the possible responses of the system to various changes in density.

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  • This chapter presents the basic theory and characteristics of stimulated emission and optical amplification gain in semiconductors. The former is the mostimportant principlethat enablessemiconductorlaserstobeimplemented, and the latter is the most important parameter for analysis of the laser performances. First, stimulated emission in semiconductors is explained, and then quantum theory analysis and statistic analysis using the density matrix of the optical amplification gain are given.

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  • Integrative evolving connectionist systems (iECOS) integrate principles from different levels of information processing in the brain, including cognitive-, neuronal-, genetic- and quantum, in their dynamic interaction over time. The paper introduces a new framework of iECOS called integrative probabilistic evolving spiking neural networks (ipSNN) that incorporate probability learning parameters. ipSNN utilize a quantum inspired evolutionary optimization algorithm to optimize the probability parameters as these algorithms belong to the class of estimation of distribution algorithms (EDA).

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