This book embraces the most recent developments in modern operative dentistry,
but has attempted to merge these with traditional practice. Students,
colleagues, and general dental practitioners have requested an evidence-based
approach to the practical concepts in modern restorative dentistry. One important
philosophy that is emphasized in this book is that the prevention of
dental caries, restoration failure, and periodontal disease should be the basis
of all operative dentistry.
This book is about what we consider the essentials of human nutrition.
The science of human nutrition deals with all the effects on people of any component
found in food. This starts with the physiological and biochemical processes involved
in nourishment—how substances in food provide energy or are converted into body
tissues, and the diseases that result from insufficiency or excess of essential nutrients
(malnutrition). The role of food components in the development of chronic degenerative
disease like coronary heart disease, cancers, dental caries, etc.
America’s dairy farmers participate in a national check-off program that provides
monies to promote the consumption of dairy foods. A large portion of these funds
is used to support nutrition research, communication, and education. Since 1915,
the National Dairy Council® has been committed to establishing programs and
developing educational materials based on current scientific research, as well as
providing sound scientific information in all of its communications.
This book is an update of the first edition of the Handbook of Dairy Foods and
Probiotics may exert a multidirectional effects
affecting the gene expression in intestinal cells. A number of positive effects of
probiotics have been indicated, particularly their beneficial effect in the pathologic
conditions including antibiotic-associated traveler's diarrhea, irritable bowel syndrome
(IBS), lactose intolerance, dental caries, gastroduodenal ulcers due to Helicobacter
pylori, hepatic encephalopathy, intestinal motility disorders and neonatal necrotizing
These disorders are caused by maturational white matter abnormalities and therefore
white matter tractography (using DTI) can offer advantages over conventional MRI in
the detectability of clinically relevant microstructural features. High field strength
structural MR scanning (up to 7 tesla for clinical and research use in humans) is now
available in some countries, and this greatly enhances the spatial resolution over that
offered by standard clinical facilities (typically 1.5 or 3 tesla).
Definitions and scope of pediatric dentistry
Pediatric dentistry is an age-defined specialty that provides
both primary and comprehensive preventive and therapeutic
oral health care for infants and children through adolescence,
including those with special health care needs.1
To become a pediatric dental specialist, a dentist must satisfactorily
complete a minimum of 24 months in an advanced
education program accredited by the Commission on Dental
Accreditation of the American Dental Association (ADA).
Periodontal Disease Periodontal disease accounts for more tooth loss than caries, particularly in the elderly. Like dental caries, chronic infection of the gingiva and anchoring structures of the tooth begins with formation of bacterial plaque. The process begins invisibly above the gum line and in the gingival sulcus. Plaque, including mineralized plaque (calculus), is preventable by appropriate dental hygiene, including periodic professional cleaning.
Infant Mortality Infant mortality is a basic indicator of the well-being of a population and of
the health status of the children. According to data from the Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD), a collaboration of 30 member countries sharing a com-
mitment to democratic government and a market economy, Mexico’s infant mortality rate was the
highest at 20.5 per 1,000 live births in 2003 (this is also the second highest rate in the OECD).
Canada had the lowest infant mortality rate of the three countries in 2003 at 5.3 per 1,000 live
It is 41 years since the first edition of this book was published.
In that time there have been so many developments in
our understanding of dental disease, in materials, and in
techniques so that there is now very little of that first edition
remaining except the basic philosophy for managing
patients with dental disease. This philosophy has several
parallel threads which weave together.
• Dentists primarily look after people with dental problems
– not just mouths or teeth.
• An understanding of the disease processes is fundamental
to their management.
Dental caries is a common childhood problem. It is five times more prevalent than asthma. Although dental caries is preventable, almost 28 percent of children aged two to five years experience the disease (21). A virulent form of dental caries in children younger than six is generally defined as early childhood caries (ECC). Because management of these children in dental offices is difficult, treatment is often rendered in operating rooms, increasing the cost of care. Furthermore, there is a high rate of relapse of caries in these children.
Quality of health care has received recent attention as a determinant of child health. Barber and Gertler
(2001) conclude that in Indonesia children who live in communities with high quality care are healthier
compared with children who live in areas with poor quality. Peabody et al (1998) showed that Jamaican
women with access to high quality prenatal care have higher birth weights than women with access to
poor quality care. It is clear, however, that to establish causal relationships between access and/or
quality care and child health is extremely difficult.
Health care professionals should recognize the importance of good oral health and make certain that the need for dental care during pregnancy and early childhood is met. Pregnancy is a unique time in a woman’s life and is characterized by complex physiological changes. These changes can adversely affect oral health during pregnancy. Pregnancy is also an opportune time to educate women about preventing dental caries in young children, one of the most common childhood problems. Evidence suggests that most young children acquire caries-causing bacteria from mothers.
(BQ) Part 1 book "Shafer's textbook of oral pathology" presentation of content: Developmental disturbances of oral and paraoral structures, benign and malignant tumors of the oral cavity, tumors of the salivary glands, cysts and tumors of odontogenic origin, bacterial infections of the oral cavity, viral infections of the oral cavity,... and other contents.
In order to secure child’s healthy
development, having a healthy nutrition and
maintaining a desirable level of physical
exercise are not enough only by themselves.
Following rules of hygiene is also required, so
that the likelihood of kids getting sick is
limited. It has been proven that frequent
hand-washing is an effective way to protect
children from infectious diseases, since
spreading of diseases at school becomes
limited in this way.
Dental problems such as caries, erosion, epulis, periodontal infection, loose teeth, and ill-fitting crowns, bridges, and dentures (prostheses) may have special significance during pregnancy (5;8;9;19;2325).
Tooth decay is the result of repeated acid attacks on the tooth enamel. Any increase in tooth decay during pregnancy may be due to changes in diet and oral hygiene. Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy can cause extensive erosion. Pregnancy gingivitis is present in over 30 percent of pregnant women. At the time of labor and delivery, dislodged teeth or prostheses could cause complications....