Computer and Information Technology have transformed society and will continue to do so in the future.
An increasing number of dentists use a variety of computer technologies, including digital intraoral
cameras and paperless patient records.
The topic of dental computing is related to the application of computer and information science in
dentistry. Dental computing produces an increasing number of applications and tools for clinical practice.
Dental computing support research and education, and improvements in these areas translate into
improved patient care.
The Nondestructive testing science is a broad field that covers variety of testing methods
and applications, in addition to the associated pre and post processing mathematics. In
terms of methods and techniques the Nondestructive testing modalities rely on different
physical phenomena such as the electromagnetism, the acoustic emission, the thermal
emission and the penetration of high-energy radiation through materials and structures.
Esthetics (also spelled aesthetics) is a subdiscipline
of value theory or axiology, which is a branch of philosophy
that studies sensory values, sometimes called
judgments of sentiment or taste. Esthetics is closely associated
with the philosophy of High Art. Esthetics
includes art as well as the very purpose behind it. Esthetics
as a branch of philosophy studies art, the methods of
evaluating art, and judgments of art. Art has existed
through all recorded human history. Art is unique to
human beings because of our innate ability to abstract.
Radiology is an essential component of dental diagnosis. Available
data clearly show that ionizing radiation, if delivered in sufficient
doses, may produce biological damage. However, it is not clear
that radiation in doses required for dental radiography presents
any risk. Neither is it clear that these small doses are free of risk.
This new edition has been prompted by the introduction
of new legislation and guidance on the
use of ionising radiation in the UK. In addition to
providing a summary of these new regulations I
have taken the opportunity to update certain
chapters and encompass many of the helpful suggestions
and comments I have received from
reviewers, colleagues and students. In particular I
have increased the number of examples of many
of the pathological conditions so that a range of
appearances is illustrated....