This paper discusses the effects of bank competition on bank loan and deposit rate levels as well as on
their responses to changes in market rates and, hence, on the monetary policy transmission mechanism.
Given the prominent role of the banking sector in the euro area’s financial system, it is of significant
importance for the ECB to monitor the degree of competitive behaviour in the euro area banking
market. A more competitive banking market is expected to drive down bank loan rates, adding to the
welfare of households and enterprises.
The report describes the environmental status of the water bodies in
2004 as well as the trend in environmental quality over the period
1989–2004 in relation to changes in the pressures. In addition it de-
scribes the monitoring of terrestrial natural habitats and species, in-
cluding the first results of this monitoring, which was initiated in
The Holocene coastal zone of Mekong river plain is the result of prolonged marinefluvial interaction. Lithofacies association in time and space is characterized by three depositional system tract belonged to the upper part of a sequence stratigraphy. Based on lithology should be divided 5 sedimentary types and 18 lithofacies distributed in stratigraphical column and in sea bottom varying from 25m water depth to mainland coastal area. According to
Human activities have a large and important impact on the environment.
Naturally occurring elements or compounds are often concentrated and
redistributed in the environment through industrial processes, power production,
and consumer activity. For example, lead, which is found in
naturally occurring mineral deposits, has become a major pollutant through
its use in batteries, paints, and gasoline additives.
Finance has become one of the most important and popular subjects in
management school today. This subject has progressed tremendously in
the last forty years, integrating models and ideas from other areas such as
physics, statistics, and accounting. The financial markets have also rap-
idly expanded and changed extensively with improved technology and the
ever changing regulatory and social environment.
Hydrocarbons provide our core energy resource. Information on their origin, properties and phase behavior is interesting from the point of view of physical chemistry. At the same time this information is of great value to the oil and gas industry. The book "Hydrocarbon" is comprised of 9 chapters, covering different topics: from origin of hydrocarbons to the method for hydrocarbon exploration. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and their influence to environment are also discussed....
Databases and database systems are an essential
component of life in modern society: most of us
encounter several activities every day that involve some interaction with a database.
For example, if we go to the bank to deposit or withdraw funds, if we make a hotel
or airline reservation, if we access a computerized library catalog to search for a bibliographic
item, or if we purchase something online—such as a book, toy, or computer—
chances are that our activities will involve someone or some computer
program accessing a database.
When considering supply side factors, we study characteristics of the financial sector that would
influence the speed of adoption of mutual funds. We examine the effect of bank concentration,
restrictions placed on banks to enter the securities business, the number of distribution channels available
for funds, the presence of an explicit deposit insurance system for banks, and the time and cost to set up a
new fund. We find that nations that restrict banks from entering the securities business have smaller
equity and bond fund sectors. In addition, countries with a...
As in a past decades, the world today continues to be at crossroads in terms of energy.
Shortages and rising prices of fuel, accompanied by environmental damage are
leading to a poor quality of life. Fossil fuel consumption is increasing, and our search
for oil has led to ever deeper reserves, with its higher production costs. Rapid
depletion of oil and gas are real issues affecting both current and future generations.
Ennore Creek becomes the pollution point in Bay of
Bengal which influences the marine resources and
productivity of the region. This coastal belt in the
neighboring areas of the city is viewed as dumping sites
for industrial effluents and disposing domestic waste
(Arunagiri et al., 1998). The natural wealth of the creek is
now being eroded to mere sewage channel
The Ennore Thermal Power Plant uses the river waters
as coolant and lets out the warm water, in the Ennore
Although phosphate rock and potash are used as raw
materials for a wide range of applications, the most
important use by far is the manufacture of mineral
The primary source of these minerals is geological ore
deposits formed through past sedimentary or igneous
activities. In the case of potash, concentrated brines
are also a significant source.
This chapter provides a brief overview of the major
activities involved in the mining, handling and benefi-
ciation of phosphate rock and potash ore....
Ammonia concentration should be measured using passive sampling techniques – either
the ‘Alpha’ samplers used by the Ammonia Monitoring Scheme or commercially
available diffusion tubes (e.g. those supplied and analysed by Gradko Ltd.).
Wet deposition should be collected using a standard precipitation collector (Sykes &
Lane, 1996) and analysed for NO2
This volume, edited by John Gunn, Rob Steedman, and Dick Ryder, pulls together an
incredibly broad mix of people and topics under a single cover. As such, it is a worthy
addition to the new series from CRC Press — Integrative Studies in Water Management
and Land Development — that was initiated in 2002 with publication of my own edited
Handbook of Water Sensitive Planning and Design
. Books like these are rare, but they
Restricted cash is cash that has been set aside for a particular use and is not available for paying current liabilities. Restricted cash is not a current asset, rather it is classified as an investment on the balance sheet.
A compensating balance is some specified minimum amount that must be maintained on deposit with a bank that has made a loan to the company.
The Society makes every effort to ensure that the scientific and production quality of its books matches that
of its journals. Since 1997, all book proposals have been refereed by specialist reviewers as well as by the
Society’s Books Editorial Committee. If the referees identify weaknesses in the proposal, these must be
addressed before the proposal is accepted.
Once the book is accepted, the Society Book Editors ensure that the volume editors follow strict
guidelines on refereeing and quality control.
Another portion of the airborne mercury is transported long distances before it is deposited at some
point downwind. If this takes place within several hundred kilometres, it is considered as regional
deposition. High levels of mercury in eastern North America, for instance, are due in part to the downwind
deposition of mercury emissions from a large number of major industrial sources in the American
Midwest and Ontario, mostly coal-fired electric power plants.
By far the most important for the present publication,
in terms of the quantity mined and potential impact
on the environment, are phosphate and potash.
The production of phosphorous and potassium min-
eral fertilizers relies essentially on the mining of
mineral concentrations, in the form of ore deposits
from the earth's crust. Nitrogen mineral fertilizers, on
the other hand, are almost entirely based on ammonia
manufactured from the abundant source of atmos-
pheric nitrogen, water and energy.
Beneficiation (or concentration) processes are gener-
ally used to upgrade the phosphate content by
removing contaminants and barren material prior to
further processing. A few ores are of sufficiently high
quality to require no further concentration. The natu-
rally occurring impurities contained in phosphate
rock ore depend heavily on the type of deposit (sedi-
mentary or igneous), associated minerals, and the
extent of weathering. Major impurities can include
organic matter, clay and other fines, siliceous material,
carbonates, and iron bearing minerals.
The model describes the behaviour of consumers, which are heterogeneous in terms
of age, income and ¯nancial assets. They maximize the utility from consumption sub-
ject to the life-cycle budget constraint. Their savings are remunerated at the deposit
interest rate and the cost of borrowing is given by the lending rate. When young, con-
sumers work and receive wages that depend on an idiosyncratic, stochastic component
and a deterministic life-cycle pro¯le of productivity. When old, they are on a manda-
tory retirement and receive pensions.
Many youth in the United States have fully integrated the Internet into their daily lives.
For them, the Internet is a positive and powerful space for socializing, learning, and engaging in
public life. Along with the positive aspects of Internet use come risks to safety, including the
dangers of sexual solicitation, online harassment, and bullying, and exposure to problematic and